How to format your references using the American Journal of Nephrology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for American Journal of Nephrology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik P. Thinking ahead. Nature. 2003 May;423(6939):565.
A journal article with 2 authors
Aide TM, Grau HR. Ecology. Globalization, migration, and Latin American ecosystems. Science. 2004 Sep;305(5692):1915–6.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ghimire A, Shafran E, Gerton JM. Using a sharp metal tip to control the polarization and direction of emission from a quantum dot. Sci Rep. 2014 Sep;4:6456.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Yin H, Pruyne D, Huffaker TC, Bretscher A. Myosin V orientates the mitotic spindle in yeast. Nature. 2000 Aug;406(6799):1013–5.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Audibert P. Mathematics for Informatics and Computer Science. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2013.
An edited book
Rehm G, Uszkoreit H, editors. The Basque Language in the Digital Age. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
Procesi C. The spirit of algebra. In: Emmer M, Quarteroni A, editors. Mathknow: Mathematics, Applied Sciences and Real Life. Milano: Springer; 2009; pp 37–57.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for American Journal of Nephrology.

Blog post
Andrew E. This Microchip That Could Reduce Animal Testing has Designers Excited [Internet]. IFLScience. 2015 Jul [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Technology Transfer: Barriers Limit Royalty Sharing’s Effectiveness. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1992.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
DiPasquale VL. A phenomenological study of industry professionals’ perceptions of ethics in the title insurance industry. 2010

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey G. Auburn vs. Oregon: Headsets at 20 Paces. New York Times. 2011 Jan;SP6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleAmerican Journal of Nephrology
AbbreviationAm. J. Nephrol.
ISSN (print)0250-8095
ISSN (online)1421-9670

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