How to format your references using the American Journal of Nephrology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for American Journal of Nephrology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik P. French lessons. Nature. 2005 Jun;435(7043):849.
A journal article with 2 authors
Khosla C, Tang Y. Chemistry. A new route to designer antibiotics. Science. 2005 Apr;308(5720):367–8.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zhang YV, Ni J, Montell C. The molecular basis for attractive salt-taste coding in Drosophila. Science. 2013 Jun;340(6138):1334–8.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Lalmi B, Girard JC, Pallecchi E, Silly M, David C, Latil S, et al. Flower-shaped domains and wrinkles in trilayer epitaxial graphene on silicon carbide. Sci Rep. 2014 Feb;4:4066.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Staudt G. Experimentalphysik. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2001.
An edited book
Sengupta S, Das K, Khan G, editors. Emerging Trends in Computing and Communication: ETCC 2014, March 22-23, 2014. New Delhi: Springer India; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Erozan YS, Tatsas A. Kidney. In: Tatsas A, editor. Cytopathology of Liver, Biliary Tract, Kidney and Adrenal Gland. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2015; pp 115–61.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for American Journal of Nephrology.

Blog post
Andrew E. Quasar Sheds Light On A Twin Black Hole Secret [Internet]. IFLScience. 2015 Aug [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Airport Improvement Program: Update of Allocation of Funds and Passenger Facility Charges, 1992-94. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1995.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ehsani S. Design of a Teleoperation – Based Robotic Surgical System. 2014

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky S. Russia: Ministry Takes Aim at a Human Rights Group. New York Times. 2014 Oct;A6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleAmerican Journal of Nephrology
AbbreviationAm. J. Nephrol.
ISSN (print)0250-8095
ISSN (online)1421-9670

Other styles