How to format your references using the American Journal of Nephrology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for American Journal of Nephrology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Braun DC. Comment on “Detection of emerging sunspot regions in the solar interior.” Science. 2012 Apr;336(6079):296; author reply 296.
A journal article with 2 authors
Silverman N, Paquette N. Immunology. The right resident bugs. Science. 2008 Feb;319(5864):734–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
Song C, Havlin S, Makse HA. Self-similarity of complex networks. Nature. 2005 Jan;433(7024):392–5.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Chang Y-C, Yang C-Y, Sun R-L, Cheng Y-F, Kao W-C, Yang P-C. Rapid single cell detection of Staphylococcus aureus by aptamer-conjugated gold nanoparticles. Sci Rep. 2013;3:1863.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Petrucelli JR. Detecting Fraud in Organizations. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2013.
An edited book
Ross AA. Handbook of Multibiometrics. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
Inaba M, Iida T, Yamasaki T, Fume K, Mizoguchi Y, Nagano S, et al. Pattern-Based Semantic Tagging for Ontology Population. In: Kowalczyk R, Huhns M, Klusch M, Maamar Z, Vo QB, editors. Service-Oriented Computing: Agents, Semantics, and Engineering: AAMAS 2008 International Workshop, SOCASE 2008, Estoril, Portugal, May 12, 2008 Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2008; pp 45–55.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for American Journal of Nephrology.

Blog post
Andrew E. Why Indonesia Can’t Stamp Out Fires That Have Cast A Haze Over South-East Asia [Internet]. IFLScience. 2015 Nov [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Strategic Bombers: Updated Status of the B-1B Recovery Program. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1991.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Stanfill DL. Teacher perception of the alignment of enhancing Missouri’s Instructional Networked Teaching Strategies (eMINTS) with the National Staff Development Council (NSDC) Standards. 2010

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Stewart JB. Following Amazon In the Hunt For a Home. New York Times. 2017 Oct;B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleAmerican Journal of Nephrology
AbbreviationAm. J. Nephrol.
ISSN (print)0250-8095
ISSN (online)1421-9670

Other styles