How to format your references using the American Journal of Nephrology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for American Journal of Nephrology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Chergui M: Chemistry. Controlling biological functions. Science 2006;313:1246–1247.
A journal article with 2 authors
Morris SC, Caron J-B: Halwaxiids and the early evolution of the lophotrochozoans. Science 2007;315:1255–1258.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kane Dickson V, Pedi L, Long SB: Structure and insights into the function of a Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channel. Nature 2014;516:213–218.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Ibrahim F, Rohr J, Jeong W-J, Hesson J, Cerutti H: Untemplated oligoadenylation promotes degradation of RISC-cleaved transcripts. Science 2006;314:1893.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Jones DW: Economic Theory and the Ancient Mediterranean. Chichester, UK, John Wiley & Sons, Inc, 2014.
An edited book
Guttry A de, Gestri M, Venturini G (eds): International Disaster Response Law. The Hague, The Netherlands, T. M. C. Asser Press, 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
Silipo A, Molinaro A: The Diversity of the Core Oligosaccharide in Lipopolysaccharides; in Wang X, Quinn PJ (eds): Endotoxins: Structure, Function and Recognition. Dordrecht, Springer Netherlands, 2010, pp 69–99.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for American Journal of Nephrology.

Blog post
Andrew E: The Biggest Sticking Point In Paris Climate Talks: Money. IFLScience 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30];Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Executive Office of the President: Analysis of Mandated Report on Key Information Technology Areas. Washington, DC, U.S. Government Printing Office, 2002.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Short DD: Assessing effectiveness and economic efficiency in California Community College transfer advising 2009;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner J: Mets Evaluate Their Options at First Base After Duda Is Sidelined by Hip Stiffness. New York Times 2017;SP3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleAmerican Journal of Nephrology
AbbreviationAm. J. Nephrol.
ISSN (print)0250-8095
ISSN (online)1421-9670

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