How to format your references using the Journal of Inflammation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Inflammation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Crow JF. Development. There’s something curious about paternal-age effects. Science. 2003;301:606–7.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Margoliash D, Tchernichovski O. DEVELOPMENT. Marmoset kids actually listen. Science. 2015;349:688–9.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Aspinwall LG, Brown TR, Tabery J. The double-edged sword: does biomechanism increase or decrease judges’ sentencing of psychopaths? Science. 2012;337:846–9.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Stern SA, Weaver HA, Steffl AJ, Mutchler MJ, Merline WJ, Buie MW, et al. A giant impact origin for Pluto’s small moons and satellite multiplicity in the Kuiper belt. Nature. 2006;439:946–8.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Pozen R, Hamacher T, Phillips D. The Fund Industry. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2011.
An edited book
1. Bhansali A. Clinical Rounds in Endocrinology: Volume II - Pediatric Endocrinology. Aggarwal A, Parthan G, Gogate Y, editors. New Delhi: Springer India; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Ludlow P. Recursion, Legibility, Use. In: Roeper T, Speas M, editors. Recursion: Complexity in Cognition. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014. p. 89–112.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Inflammation.

Blog post
1. Hamilton K. From Perspiration To World Domination – The Extraordinary Science Of Sweat [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Army Reserve Officer Education. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1993 May. Report No.: NSIAD-93-197R.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Selph CS. Origins of Music Programs in Liberal Arts Institutions: The Story of Three Florida Catholic Universities [Doctoral dissertation]. [Tampa, FL]: University of South Florida; 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Kolomatsky M. Mom and Pop Own Fewer Rentals. New York Times. 2017 Aug 31;RE2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Inflammation
AbbreviationJ. Inflamm. (Lond.)
ISSN (online)1476-9255

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