How to format your references using the Journal of Inflammation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Inflammation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Haddad NM. ECOLOGY. Corridors for people, corridors for nature. Science. 2015;350:1166–7.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Rudolph ML, Zhong S. Does quadrupole stability imply LLSVP fixity? Nature. 2013;503:E3-4.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Cumings J, Collins PG, Zettl A. Peeling and sharpening multiwall nanotubes. Nature. 2000;406:586.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Stockem A, Fiuza F, Bret A, Fonseca RA, Silva LO. Exploring the nature of collisionless shocks under laboratory conditions. Sci Rep. 2014;4:3934.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Rittereiser CM, Kochard LE. Top Hedge Fund Investors. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2010.
An edited book
1. Cole DR. A Pedagogy of Cinema. Bradley JPN, editor. Rotterdam: SensePublishers; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Rivkin W, Schmidt K-H. Beneficial Effects of Servant Leadership on Short- and Long-Term Indicators of Employees’ Psychological Health. In: Deml B, Stock P, Bruder R, Schlick CM, editors. Advances in Ergonomic Design of Systems, Products and Processes: Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of GfA 2015. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2016. p. 71–85.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Inflammation.

Blog post
1. Davis J. New Laser Treatment Based On Deep-Sea Bacteria Effectively Treats Prostate Cancer [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Space Operations: NASA’s Use of Information Technology. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1987 Apr. Report No.: IMTEC-87-20.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Dhah S. The relationship between job-embedded professional development and special education teacher self-efficacy in hard-to-staff middle schools [Doctoral dissertation]. [Malibu, CA]: Pepperdine University; 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. ROBERT KELLY; Robert Kelly is a poet who teaches literature, writing at Bard College. “I’D RATHER BE A GREAT BAD POET.” New York Times. 1990 Feb 11;77.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Inflammation
AbbreviationJ. Inflamm. (Lond.)
ISSN (online)1476-9255

Other styles