How to format your references using the Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Chyba CF. Atmospheric science. Rethinking Earth’s early atmosphere. Science 2005;308:962–3.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kiberstis P, Marshall E. Cancer crusade at 40. Celebrating an anniversary. Introduction. Science 2011;331:1539.
A journal article with 3 authors
Otto SB, Rall BC, Brose U. Allometric degree distributions facilitate food-web stability. Nature 2007;450:1226–9.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Guido NJ, Wang X, Adalsteinsson D, McMillen D, Hasty J, Cantor CR, et al. A bottom-up approach to gene regulation. Nature 2006;439:856–60.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Guinot V. Wave Propagation in Fluids. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2010.
An edited book
Sasakawa C, editor. Molecular Mechanisms of Bacterial Infection via the Gut. vol. 337. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
Marks NJ, Maule AG. Neuropeptides in Helminths: Occurrence and Distribution. In: Geary TG, Maule AG, editors. Neuropeptide Systems as Targets for Parasite and Pest Control, Boston, MA: Springer US; 2010, p. 49–77.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy.

Blog post
Fang J. Some Humans Migrated Back To Africa 45,000 Years Ago. IFLScience 2016. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Mass Transit: Status of New Starts Transit Projects With Full Funding Grant Agreements. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1999.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Zhang G. Roles of serotonin 2A receptor in a serotonin syndrome. Doctoral dissertation. Florida Atlantic University, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Wasik JF. Helping Hand for Start-Ups From Those Who’ve Been There Before. New York Times 2016:B2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Infection and Chemotherapy
AbbreviationJ. Infect. Chemother.
ISSN (print)1341-321X
ScopeInfectious Diseases
Microbiology (medical)
Pharmacology (medical)

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