How to format your references using the Coatings citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Coatings. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Reynolds, A.M. Mussels realize Weierstrassian Lévy walks as composite correlated random walks. Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 4409.
A journal article with 2 authors
Padoa-Schioppa, C.; Assad, J.A. Neurons in the orbitofrontal cortex encode economic value. Nature 2006, 441, 223–226.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ben-David, O.; Rubinstein, S.M.; Fineberg, J. Slip-stick and the evolution of frictional strength. Nature 2010, 463, 76–79.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Asadi, M.; Sayahpour, B.; Abbasi, P.; Ngo, A.T.; Karis, K.; Jokisaari, J.R.; Liu, C.; Narayanan, B.; Gerard, M.; Yasaei, P.; et al. A lithium-oxygen battery with a long cycle life in an air-like atmosphere. Nature 2018, 555, 502–506.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Baudin, P. Wireless Transceiver Architecture; John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Chichester, UK, 2014; ISBN 9781118874813.
An edited book
Steiber, A. The Silicon Valley Model: Management for Entrepreneurship; Alänge, S., Ed.; Management for Professionals; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2016; ISBN 9783319249193.
A chapter in an edited book
de Winter, M. Subjectificating Socialisation for the Common Good: The Case for a Democratic Offensive in Upbringing and Education. In Civic Learning, Democratic Citizenship and the Public Sphere; Biesta, G., De Bie, M., Wildemeersch, D., Eds.; Springer Netherlands: Dordrecht, 2014; pp. 55–70 ISBN 9789400772588.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Coatings.

Blog post
Taub, B. Researchers Create Milk Chocolate With Health Benefits Of Dark Chocolate Available online: (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Information Technology: Numerous Federal Networks Used to Support Homeland Security Need to Be Better Coordinated with Key State and Local Information-Sharing Initiatives; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2007;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Driskill, K.M. A qualitative study of teacher understanding and use of differentiated instruction to promote reading achievement. Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix: Phoenix, AZ, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Fernandez, M. After Shooting, Scrutiny Turns to 2nd Officer. New York Times 2015, A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCoatings
ISSN (online)2079-6412

Other styles