How to format your references using the Coatings citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Coatings. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sims, I.R. Chemistry. Arranging Reactive Meetings of Cold Radicals. Science 2011, 334, 1506–1507.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hoffman, K.A.; Singer, B.S. Magnetic Source Separation in Earth’s Outer Core. Science 2008, 321, 1800.
A journal article with 3 authors
Tripati, A.K.; Roberts, C.D.; Eagle, R.A. Coupling of CO2 and Ice Sheet Stability over Major Climate Transitions of the Last 20 Million Years. Science 2009, 326, 1394–1397.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Zhao, H.; Zheng, L.; Li, X.; Wang, L. FasL Gene -844T/C Mutation of Esophageal Cancer in South China and Its Clinical Significance. Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 3866.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Smith, D.A.; van de Waterbeemd, H.; Walker, D.K. Pharmacokinetics and Metabolism in Drug Design: SMITH: PHARMACOKINETICS AND METABOLISM IN DRUG DESIGN O-BK; Methods and Principles in Medicinal Chemistry; Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA: Weinheim, FRG, 2006; ISBN 9783527608225.
An edited book
O’Donoghue, T. Secondary School Education in Ireland: History, Memories and Life Stories, 1922–1967; Harford, J., Ed.; Palgrave Macmillan UK: London, 2016; ISBN 9781349572045.
A chapter in an edited book
Cannon, T.Y.; Bartal, K. Cancer of the Hypopharynx. In Cancer of the Oral Cavity, Pharynx and Larynx: Evidence-Based Decision Making; Medina, J.E., Vasan, N.R., Eds.; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2016; pp. 65–82 ISBN 9783319186290.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Coatings.

Blog post
Andrew, E. How World War II Spurred Vaccine Innovation Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Aviation Security: Vulnerabilities Still Exist in the Aviation Security System; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2000;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Nguyen, M. Therapeutic Groups for Adults with Mental Illness and Their Caregivers: A Grant Proposal. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach: Long Beach, CA, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Folkers, K.M. The Millennials’ S.T.D.? New York Times 2016, SR5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCoatings
ISSN (online)2079-6412

Other styles