How to format your references using the Coatings citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Coatings. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hoffert, M. Governments must pay for clean-energy innovation. Nature 2011, 472, 137.
A journal article with 2 authors
Shortle, D.; Ackerman, M.S. Persistence of native-like topology in a denatured protein in 8 M urea. Science 2001, 293, 487–489.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hoerling, M.P.; Hurrell, J.W.; Xu, T. Tropical origins for recent North Atlantic climate change. Science 2001, 292, 90–92.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Lu, H.-X.; Cao, L.-Z.; Zhao, J.-Q.; Li, Y.-D.; Wang, X.-Q. Extreme violation of local realism with a hyper-entangled four-photon-eight-qubit Greenberger-Horne-Zelinger state. Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 4476.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Stuart, B. Forensic Analytical Techniques: Stuart/Forensic Analytical Techniques; Analytical Techniques in the Sciences; John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Chichester, UK, 2012; ISBN 9781118496879.
An edited book
Artificial General Intelligence: 7th International Conference, AGI 2014, Quebec City, QC, Canada, August 1-4, 2014. Proceedings; Goertzel, B., Orseau, L., Snaider, J., Eds.; Lecture Notes in Computer Science; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2014; Vol. 8598; ISBN 9783319092737.
A chapter in an edited book
Loktev, M.; Vdovin, G. Technology and Operation of a Liquid Crystal Modal Wavefront Corrector. In Adaptive Optics for Industry and Medicine: Proceedings of the 4th International Workshop Münster, Germany, Oct. 19–24, 2003; Wittrock, U., Ed.; Springer Proceedings in Physics; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2005; pp. 25–33 ISBN 9783540239789.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Coatings.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J. Construction Of Huge New Hawaiian Telescope May Be Moved To The Canary Islands Following Protests Available online: (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Transportation Security R&D: TSA and DHS Are Researching and Developing Technologies, but Need to Improve R&D Management; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2004;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bunt, E. The saxophone works of Karlheinz Stockhausen. Doctoral dissertation, University of Arizona: Tucson, AZ, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Goodman, P.S. As U.S. Raises Walls on Trade, Allies Move On. New York Times 2017, A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCoatings
ISSN (online)2079-6412

Other styles