How to format your references using the Coatings citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Coatings. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Chakravarti, A. Being Human: Kinship: Race Relations. Nature 2009, 457, 380–381.
A journal article with 2 authors
Blanpain, C.; Fuchs, E. Stem Cell Plasticity. Plasticity of Epithelial Stem Cells in Tissue Regeneration. Science 2014, 344, 1242281.
A journal article with 3 authors
Aarts, D.G.A.L.; Schmidt, M.; Lekkerkerker, H.N.W. Direct Visual Observation of Thermal Capillary Waves. Science 2004, 304, 847–850.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Ouyang, Y.; Shi, H.; Fu, R.; Wu, D. Highly Monodisperse Microporous Polymeric and Carbonaceous Nanospheres with Multifunctional Properties. Sci. Rep. 2013, 3, 1430.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Anderson, J.B.; Johannesson, R. Understanding Information Transmission; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2005; ISBN 9780471711209.
An edited book
Literary Praxis: A Conversational Inquiry into the Teaching of Literature; Ven, P.-H. van de, Doecke, B., Eds.; Pedagogy, Education and Praxis; SensePublishers: Rotterdam, 2011; Vol. 5; ISBN 9789460915864.
A chapter in an edited book
Brokate, M.; Kersting, G. Integrable Functions. In Measure and Integral; Kersting, G., Ed.; Compact Textbooks in Mathematics; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2015; pp. 41–52 ISBN 9783319153643.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Coatings.

Blog post
Andrews, R. Groundbreaking New Source Of Renewable Energy Invented By Scientists Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Year 2000 Computing Crisis: Strong Leadership Today Needed To Prevent Future Disruption of Government Services; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1997;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Alsubaihi, S.I. Challenges for Women Academic Leaders to Obtain Senior Leadership Positions in Higher Education in Saudi Arabia. Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University: Malibu, CA, 2016.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, R. A Repulsively Lonely Man. New York Times 1995, 71.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCoatings
ISSN (online)2079-6412

Other styles