How to format your references using the Journal of Inequalities and Applications citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Inequalities and Applications. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Diringer, E.: Climate policy: letting go of Kyoto. Nature. 479, 291–292 (2011)
A journal article with 2 authors
Taylor, A.F., Smith, G.R.: RecBCD enzyme is a DNA helicase with fast and slow motors of opposite polarity. Nature. 423, 889–893 (2003)
A journal article with 3 authors
Kennedy, M., Mrofka, D., von der Borch, C.: Snowball Earth termination by destabilization of equatorial permafrost methane clathrate. Nature. 453, 642–645 (2008)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Petrović, A.P., Paré, A., Paudel, T.R., Lee, K., Holmes, S., Barnes, C.H.W., David, A., Wu, T., Tsymbal, E.Y., Panagopoulos, C.: Long-range electronic reconstruction to a dxz,yz-dominated Fermi surface below the LaAlO₃/SrTiO₃ interface. Sci. Rep. 4, 5338 (2014)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Anisman, H.: Stress and Your Health. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK (2015)
An edited book
Wang, L., Jin, Y. eds: Fuzzy Systems and Knowledge Discovery: Second International Conference, FSKD 2005, Changsha, China, August 27-29, 2005, Proceedings, Part I. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2005)
A chapter in an edited book
Menon, P.G., Adhyapak, S.M., Parachuri, V.R.: Analysis of Cardiac MRI Based Regional Timing of Left Ventricular Mechanical Contraction as a Biomarker for Electrical Dyssynchrony in Heart-Failure Patients. In: Zhang, Y.J. and Tavares, J.M.R.S. (eds.) Computational Modeling of Objects Presented in Images. Fundamentals, Methods, and Applications: 4th International Conference, CompIMAGE 2014, Pittsburgh, PA, USA, September 3-5, 2014. pp. 48–56. Springer International Publishing, Cham (2014)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Inequalities and Applications.

Blog post
Andrew, E.: Night Sky Puts On A Meteor Shower To Celebrate Rosetta’s Closest Approach To The Sun,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Inland Waterways Fuel Tax: Additional Data Could Enhance IRS’s Efforts to Ensure Taxpayer Compliance. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (2016)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Oteng, Y.: Enquête sur la Pluralité Culturelle: Identité et Marginalisation dans le Roman Francophone Colonial et Postcolonial (Chraïbi, Kane, Kourouma, Boudjedra, Ben Jelloun), (2001)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, C.: At These Screenings, the Writers Get the Applause, (2013)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Inequalities and Applications
AbbreviationJ. Inequal. Appl.
ISSN (online)1029-242X
Applied Mathematics
Discrete Mathematics and Combinatorics

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