How to format your references using the Journal of Inequalities and Applications citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Inequalities and Applications. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Grayson, M.: Agriculture and drought. Nature. 501, S1 (2013)
A journal article with 2 authors
Mbadugha, C.A., Onakoya, A.O.: The awareness, perceptions and experiences of primary open angle glaucoma patients in Lagos Nigeria. Sci. Rep. 4, 7585 (2014)
A journal article with 3 authors
Arp, G., Reimer, A., Reitner, J.: Photosynthesis-induced biofilm calcification and calcium concentrations in Phanerozoic oceans. Science. 292, 1701–1704 (2001)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Snyder, J., Slusky, J.S., Cava, R.J., Schiffer, P.: How “spin ice” freezes. Nature. 413, 48–51 (2001)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Benslama, M., Boucenna, M.L., Batatia, H.: Ad Hoc Networks Telecommunications and Game Theory. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ (2015)
An edited book
Dontchev, A.L.: Implicit Functions and Solution Mappings: A View from Variational Analysis. Springer, New York, NY (2009)
A chapter in an edited book
Buchmann, J., Vollmer, U.: Forms, Bases, Points, and Lattices. In: Vollmer, U. (ed.) Binary Quadratic Forms: An Algorithmic Approach. pp. 57–84. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2007)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Inequalities and Applications.

Blog post
Andrews, R.: Enormous Dutch Air Filter Will Suck The Smog From Your Skies,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Use of ADP Equipment Operated by Three or Four Typical Government Contractors. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1971)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Roy Chowdhury, T.: Tracking Carbon Flow during Methane Oxidation into Methanotrophs Using 13C-PLFA Labeling in Pulsing Freshwater Wetlands, (2012)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Eldred, S.M., Kovaleski, S.F., Sisario, B.: Unsolved Mysteries, in Purple, (2017)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Inequalities and Applications
AbbreviationJ. Inequal. Appl.
ISSN (online)1029-242X
Applied Mathematics
Discrete Mathematics and Combinatorics

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