How to format your references using the Journal of Inequalities and Applications citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Inequalities and Applications. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Cohen, M.L.: Changing patterns of infectious disease. Nature. 406, 762–767 (2000)
A journal article with 2 authors
Xiol, J., Pillai, R.S.: Molecular biology. Outsourcing genome protection. Science. 337, 529–530 (2012)
A journal article with 3 authors
Riedel, I.H., Kruse, K., Howard, J.: A self-organized vortex array of hydrodynamically entrained sperm cells. Science. 309, 300–303 (2005)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Wang, Z., Zhang, Y., Zhang, J., Huang, L., Liu, J., Li, Y., Zhang, G., Kundu, S.C., Wang, L.: Exploring natural silk protein sericin for regenerative medicine: an injectable, photoluminescent, cell-adhesive 3D hydrogel. Sci. Rep. 4, 7064 (2014)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Center for Chemical Process Safety: Guidelines for Safe Warehousing of Chemicals. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ (1998)
An edited book
Ghosh, A.: Introduction to Micromechanisms and Microactuators. Springer India, New Delhi (2015)
A chapter in an edited book
Kireyev, D., Hung, J.: Valvular Quantification. In: Kireyev, D. and Hung, J. (eds.) Cardiac Imaging in Clinical Practice. pp. 31–50. Springer International Publishing, Cham (2016)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Inequalities and Applications.

Blog post
Andrews, R.: Scientists Have Discovered One Of The Largest Dinosaur Footprints Ever,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Charges for Launch Support Services Furnished by the Air Force to the Communications Satellite Corporation (Comsat). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1971)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Soma, V.M.: A particle filter methodology for salient object detection in videos, (2016)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Joy, S.: Danger: Earrings Ahead!, (2013)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Inequalities and Applications
AbbreviationJ. Inequal. Appl.
ISSN (online)1029-242X
Applied Mathematics
Discrete Mathematics and Combinatorics

Other styles