How to format your references using the Journal of Inequalities and Applications citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Inequalities and Applications. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Maleczka, R.E., Jr: Chemistry. Copper puts arenes in a hard position. Science. 323, 1572–1573 (2009)
A journal article with 2 authors
Hughes, A.L., Gottschling, D.E.: An early age increase in vacuolar pH limits mitochondrial function and lifespan in yeast. Nature. 492, 261–265 (2012)
A journal article with 3 authors
Hansell, D.A., Kadko, D., Bates, N.R.: Degradation of terrigenous dissolved organic carbon in the western Arctic Ocean. Science. 304, 858–861 (2004)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Meyer, J., Kidambi, P.R., Bayer, B.C., Weijtens, C., Kuhn, A., Centeno, A., Pesquera, A., Zurutuza, A., Robertson, J., Hofmann, S.: Metal oxide induced charge transfer doping and band alignment of graphene electrodes for efficient organic light emitting diodes. Sci. Rep. 4, 5380 (2014)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Zneimer, S.M.: Cytogenetic Abnormalities. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken (2014)
An edited book
Membrey, P.: Practical Load Balancing: Ride the Performance Tiger. Apress, Berkeley, CA (2012)
A chapter in an edited book
Mehling, H., Cabeza, L.F.: Heat transfer basics. In: Cabeza, L.F. (ed.) Heat and cold storage with PCM: An up to date introduction into basics and applications. pp. 105–136. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2008)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Inequalities and Applications.

Blog post
Hamilton, K.: How Science Can Make Your Baby Sleep Better,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: USDA Telecommunications. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1995)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Banerjee, S.: A mathematical model for the transition in firing patterns across puberty of a gonadotropin-releasing hormone neuron, (2013)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Abad, S., Casey, N.: Francis Honors 2 Clerics Slain in Colombian Civil War, (2017)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Inequalities and Applications
AbbreviationJ. Inequal. Appl.
ISSN (online)1029-242X
Applied Mathematics
Discrete Mathematics and Combinatorics

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