How to format your references using the Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hepatology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hepatology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Cavin L. Paleontology. On giant filter feeders. Science. 2010;327(5968):968-969.
A journal article with 2 authors
Frank SA, Nowak MA. Cell biology: Developmental predisposition to cancer. Nature. 2003;422(6931):494.
A journal article with 3 authors
Chen W, Shimada S, Tanaka M. Synthesis and structure of formally hexavalent palladium complexes. Science. 2002;295(5553):308-310.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Pickart RS, Spall MA, Ribergaard MH, Moore GWK, Milliff RF. Deep convection in the Irminger Sea forced by the Greenland tip jet. Nature. 2003;424(6945):152-156.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Pines JM, Carpenter CR, Raja AS, Schuur JD. Evidence-Based Emergency Care. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2012.
An edited book
Hublin JJ, Harvati K, Harrison T, eds. Neanderthals Revisited: New Approaches and Perspectives. Springer Netherlands; 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
Rivera E, Rodríguez A. Competition and Regulation in the Banking Systems of Central America and Mexico: A Comparative Study. In: Schatan C, Rivera E, eds. Competition Policies in Emerging Economies: Lessons and Challenges from Central America and Mexico. Springer; 2008:97-143.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hepatology.

Blog post
Luntz S. Dead Fjord Brought To Life With Oxygen Pumps. IFLScience. Published February 24, 2015. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Small Business Innovation Research: Information on Awards Made by NIH and DoD in Fiscal Years 2001 through 2004. U.S. Government Printing Office; 2006.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Goldstein TW. Writing in Red: The East German Writers Union and the Role of Literary Intellectuals in the German Democratic Republic, 1971-90. Doctoral dissertation. University of North Carolina; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Poniewozik J. Heard the One About the Angsty Comic? New York Times. May 24, 2017:AR18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Clinical and Experimental Hepatology
AbbreviationJ. Clin. Exp. Hepatol.
ISSN (print)0973-6883

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