How to format your references using the Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hepatology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hepatology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sonnenburg JL. Microbiome engineering. Nature. 2015;518(7540):S10.
A journal article with 2 authors
Mathews JA, Tan H. Economics: Manufacture renewables to build energy security. Nature. 2014;513(7517):166-168.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bogorad IW, Lin T-S, Liao JC. Synthetic non-oxidative glycolysis enables complete carbon conservation. Nature. 2013;502(7473):693-697.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Koh W-K, Koposov AY, Stewart JT, et al. Heavily doped n-type PbSe and PbS nanocrystals using ground-state charge transfer from cobaltocene. Sci Rep. 2013;3:2004.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Smaini L. RF Analog Impairments Modeling for Communication Systems Simulation. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2012.
An edited book
Mita M, Mita A, Rowinsky EK, eds. MTOR Inhibition for Cancer Therapy: Past, Present and Future. 1st ed. 2016. Springer; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Chesti M-U-H, Qadri TN, Hamid A, Qadri J, Azooz MM, Ahmad P. Role of Bio-fertilizers in Crop Improvement. In: Hakeem KR, Ahmad P, Ozturk M, eds. Crop Improvement: New Approaches and Modern Techniques. Springer US; 2013:189-208.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hepatology.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J. A Glider Might Search For Life In The Atmosphere Of Venus In 2025. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Legislative and Regulatory Actions Needed To Deal With a Changing Domestic Telecommunications Industry. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1981.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hsu Y-C. A cultural psychosocial model for depression in elder care institutions: The roles of Socially Supportive Activity and self-transcendence. Published online 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Quain JR. The Light-Sensing Technology Carmakers Are Clamoring For. New York Times. May 25, 2017:B5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Clinical and Experimental Hepatology
AbbreviationJ. Clin. Exp. Hepatol.
ISSN (print)0973-6883

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