How to format your references using the Journal of Industry, Competition and Trade citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Industry, Competition and Trade. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Schork NJ (2015) Personalized medicine: Time for one-person trials. Nature 520:609–611
A journal article with 2 authors
Bossuyt F, Milinkovitch MC (2001) Amphibians as indicators of early tertiary “out-of-India” dispersal of vertebrates. Science 292:93–95
A journal article with 3 authors
Hansell DA, Kadko D, Bates NR (2004) Degradation of terrigenous dissolved organic carbon in the western Arctic Ocean. Science 304:858–861
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Hughen KA, Eglinton TI, Xu L, Makou M (2004) Abrupt tropical vegetation response to rapid climate changes. Science 304:1955–1959

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Clark M (2006) Understanding Diabetes. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Patnaik S, Jain LC, Tzafestas SG, et al (eds) (2005) Innovations in Robot Mobility and Control. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Hansson A, Goossens K (2011) Allocation. In: Goossens K (ed) On-Chip Interconnect with aelite: Composable and Predictable Systems. Springer, New York, NY, pp 69–102

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Industry, Competition and Trade.

Blog post
Hale T (2016) Japan’s Cherry Blossom Festivals Are Becoming Threatened By Beetles. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1992) Army Accounting Adjustments--Tank-Automotive Command. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gallardo-Macias R (2009) Tin (II) compounds as novel catalysts for the Kabachnik-Fields reaction: Studies in the synthesis of alpha-aminophosphonates under solvent free conditions and Synthesis of phosphonates and phosphates as reversible and irreversible inhibitors of butyrylcholinesterase. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shear MD, Landler M (2017) U.S. Withholding Its Endorsement on Climate Pact. New York Times A1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Schork 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Bossuyt and Milinkovitch 2001; Schork 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Bossuyt and Milinkovitch 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Hughen et al. 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Industry, Competition and Trade
AbbreviationJ. Ind. Compet. Trade
ISSN (print)1566-1679
ISSN (online)1573-7012
ScopeIndustrial relations

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