How to format your references using the Journal of Industry, Competition and Trade citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Industry, Competition and Trade. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Segal E (2010) Journal club. A computational biologist looks at how identical cells come to differ. Nature 464:329
A journal article with 2 authors
Kai L, Kaldenhoff R (2014) A refined model of water and CO₂ membrane diffusion: effects and contribution of sterols and proteins. Sci Rep 4:6665
A journal article with 3 authors
Lee SH, Oe T, Blair IA (2001) Vitamin C-induced decomposition of lipid hydroperoxides to endogenous genotoxins. Science 292:2083–2086
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Nam M-S, Ardavan A, Blundell SJ, Schlueter JA (2007) Fluctuating superconductivity in organic molecular metals close to the Mott transition. Nature 449:584–587

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rasch D, Schott D (2015) Mathematische Statistik. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany
An edited book
Serneels B, Steyaert M (eds) (2008) Design of High Voltage xDSL Line Drivers in Standard CMOS. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht
A chapter in an edited book
Hardes J (2012) How to Manage Osteolytic Lesions. In: Bentley G (ed) European Instructional Lectures: Volume 12, 2012, 13th EFORT Congress, Berlin, Germany. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 45–58

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Industry, Competition and Trade.

Blog post
Hale T (2016) Inventor Of The World Wide Web Sends Open Letter To “Save The Open Internet In Europe.” In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2011) Aviation Security: TSA Has Taken Actions to Improve Security, but Additional Efforts Remain. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Robey AM (2017) The Benefits of Testing: Individual Differences Based on Student Factors. Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Hollander S (2002) Game and the Season End In Frustration for the Power. New York Times 85

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Segal 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Segal 2010; Kai and Kaldenhoff 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kai and Kaldenhoff 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Nam et al. 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Industry, Competition and Trade
AbbreviationJ. Ind. Compet. Trade
ISSN (print)1566-1679
ISSN (online)1573-7012
ScopeIndustrial relations

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