How to format your references using the Journal of Industry, Competition and Trade citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Industry, Competition and Trade. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Angel R (2001) Future optical and infrared telescopes. Nature 409:427–430
A journal article with 2 authors
Spitale JN, Porco CC (2007) Association of the jets of Enceladus with the warmest regions on its south-polar fractures. Nature 449:695–697
A journal article with 3 authors
Callender C, Quinn I, Tymoczko D (2008) Generalized voice-leading spaces. Science 320:346–348
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Rose A, Zhu Z, Madigan CF, et al (2005) Sensitivity gains in chemosensing by lasing action in organic polymers. Nature 434:876–879

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cobb K (2008) The Blackwell Guide to Theology and Popular Culture. Blackwell Publishing Ltd, Oxford, UK
An edited book
Sigel A, Sigel H, Sigel RKO (eds) (2016) The Alkali Metal Ions: Their Role for Life. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Rovaris D, Cugno S, Forni V, et al (2010) Aspetti fisiologici del dolore. In: Castelnuovo G (ed) Psicologia clinica del dolore. Springer, Milano, pp 25–33

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Industry, Competition and Trade.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) Of Cats And Cliffs: The Ethical Dilemmas Of The Driverless Car. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1981) Increased Federal Telecommunications System Use by Strengthened Control Over Commercial Toll Calls Could Reduce Costs. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gjelaj Merturi E (2010) The Perceptions of Principal-Based Leadership Practices on Student Reading Achievement. Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Grynbaum MM, Steel E (2017) Fox News, Pledging New Culture, Ousts Another Symbol of Old One. New York Times A1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Angel 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Angel 2001; Spitale and Porco 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Spitale and Porco 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Rose et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Industry, Competition and Trade
AbbreviationJ. Ind. Compet. Trade
ISSN (print)1566-1679
ISSN (online)1573-7012
ScopeIndustrial relations

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