How to format your references using the Journal of Industry, Competition and Trade citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Industry, Competition and Trade. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
McLaren A (2000) Art imitates life. Science 288:1777
A journal article with 2 authors
Prasad A, Pospíšil P (2013) Towards the two-dimensional imaging of spontaneous ultra-weak photon emission from microbial, plant and animal cells. Sci Rep 3:1211
A journal article with 3 authors
Wolfe CJ, Okubo PG, Shearer PM (2003) Mantle fault zone beneath Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii. Science 300:478–480
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Smith RJ, Veríssimo D, Leader-Williams N, et al (2009) Let the locals lead. Nature 462:280–281

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sharon M, Sharon M (2015) Graphene. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Chahl JS, Jain LC, Mizutani A, Sato-Ilic M (eds) (2007) Innovations in Intelligent Machines - 1. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Silvestry FE (2013) Echocardiographic Evaluation of Patients Before and After MitraClip Mitral Valve Repair. In: Feldman T, Franzen O, Low R, et al. (eds) Atlas of Percutaneous Edge-to-Edge Mitral Valve Repair. Springer, London, pp 63–93

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Industry, Competition and Trade.

Blog post
Andrew E (2014) Jimmy Kimmel Asks Anti-GMO People What A “GMO” Is. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2008) Digital Television Transition: Broadcasters’ Transition Status, Low-Power Station Issues, and Information on Consumer Awareness of the DTV Transition. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lastica JR (2012) Why Do They Stay? A Phenomenological Study of Secondary Science Teacher Experiences. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kanter J, Tsang A (2017) Intel Fine In Europe Gets Review. New York Times B1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (McLaren 2000).
This sentence cites two references (McLaren 2000; Prasad and Pospíšil 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Prasad and Pospíšil 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Smith et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Industry, Competition and Trade
AbbreviationJ. Ind. Compet. Trade
ISSN (print)1566-1679
ISSN (online)1573-7012
ScopeIndustrial relations

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