How to format your references using the Forest Ecosystems citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Forest Ecosystems. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Christe KO (2008) Obituary: Neil Bartlett (1932-2008). Nature 455:182
A journal article with 2 authors
Shiroguchi K, Kinosita K Jr (2007) Myosin V walks by lever action and Brownian motion. Science 316:1208–1212
A journal article with 3 authors
Gagnon K, Chadwell CD, Norabuena E (2005) Measuring the onset of locking in the Peru-Chile trench with GPS and acoustic measurements. Nature 434:205–208
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Duan X, Huang Y, Agarwal R, Lieber CM (2003) Single-nanowire electrically driven lasers. Nature 421:241–245

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wells JT (2017) Corporate Fraud Handbook. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Pooley R, Coady J, Schneider C, et al (eds) (2013) Information Systems Development: Reflections, Challenges and New Directions. Springer, New York, NY
A chapter in an edited book
Liu J (2006) Towards Network Autonomy. In: Wang G-Y, Peters JF, Skowron A, Yao Y (eds) Rough Sets and Knowledge Technology: First International Conference, RSKT 2006, Chongquing, China, July 24-26, 2006. Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 32–32

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Forest Ecosystems.

Blog post
Andrew E (2014) Why do some controversies persist despite the evidence? In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2015) Motor Carrier Safety: Additional Research Standards and Truck Drivers’ Schedule Data Could Allow More Accurate Assessments of the Hours of Service Rule. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Honnold JL (2012) Toward a Working Theory of Neurorhetorics. Doctoral dissertation, University of South Florida

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Woolfe Z (2017) Once Rebels, Now Institutions. New York Times C5

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Christe 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Shiroguchi and Kinosita 2007; Christe 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Shiroguchi and Kinosita 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Duan et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleForest Ecosystems
AbbreviationFor. Ecosyst.
ISSN (online)2197-5620
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
Plant Science

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