How to format your references using the Forest Ecosystems citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Forest Ecosystems. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bonetta L (2010) Protein-protein interactions: Tools for the search. Nature 468:852
A journal article with 2 authors
Wagner EF, Petruzzelli M (2015) Cancer metabolism: A waste of insulin interference. Nature 521:430–431
A journal article with 3 authors
Stratton MR, Campbell PJ, Futreal PA (2009) The cancer genome. Nature 458:719–724
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Moisan N, Malinowski G, Mauchain J, et al (2014) Investigating the role of superdiffusive currents in laser induced demagnetization of ferromagnets with nanoscale magnetic domains. Sci Rep 4:4658

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Boeker E, Van Grondelle R (2011) Environmental Physics. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Berry R, Adamson B (eds) (2011) Assessment Reform in Education: Policy and Practice. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht
A chapter in an edited book
Floreddu P, Cabiddu F, Pettinao D (2011) Public Participation in Environmental Decision-Making: The Case of PPGIS. In: D’Atri A, Ferrara M, George JF, Spagnoletti P (eds) Information Technology and Innovation Trends in Organizations: ItAIS: The Italian Association for Information Systems. Physica-Verlag HD, Heidelberg, pp 37–44

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Forest Ecosystems.

Blog post
Hamilton K (2016) The New £5 Note Contains Animal Fat – And Vegetarians Are Furious. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1993) Mass Transit: Needs Projections Could Better Reflect Future Costs. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Portwood B (2017) Inclusive Special and General Education Secondary Teachers’ Attitudes towards the Inclusion of Students with Disabilities in the General Education Setting. Doctoral dissertation, Lindenwood University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey G (2010) Matsui Stars in Another Classic Bronx Tale. New York Times B12

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Bonetta 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Bonetta 2010; Wagner and Petruzzelli 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Wagner and Petruzzelli 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Moisan et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleForest Ecosystems
AbbreviationFor. Ecosyst.
ISSN (online)2197-5620
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
Plant Science

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