How to format your references using the Forest Ecosystems citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Forest Ecosystems. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wang MD (2008) A biophysicist marvels at the idea of grabbing microscopic particles with light by tweaking its phase. Nature 454:921
A journal article with 2 authors
Tumer EC, Brainard MS (2007) Performance variability enables adaptive plasticity of “crystallized” adult birdsong. Nature 450:1240–1244
A journal article with 3 authors
Navrotsky A, Mazeina L, Majzlan J (2008) Size-driven structural and thermodynamic complexity in iron oxides. Science 319:1635–1638
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Kendall J-M, Stuart GW, Ebinger CJ, et al (2005) Magma-assisted rifting in Ethiopia. Nature 433:146–148

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Fisk P (2013) Chemical Risk Assessment. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Andersen HT, Atkinson R (eds) (2013) Production and Use of Urban Knowledge: European Experiences. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht
A chapter in an edited book
Møller J (2016) Norway: Researching Norwegian Principals. In: Ärlestig H, Day C, Johansson O (eds) A Decade of Research on School Principals: Cases from 24 Countries. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 77–101

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Forest Ecosystems.

Blog post
Fang J (2015) Dogs May Have Originated In Central Asia. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2016) Transportation Security: TSA Has Taken Actions to Address Transportation Security Acquisition Reform Act Requirements. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
McGrath PM (2013) Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act of 2008: A policy analysis. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saulny S (2003) Lawyer Faces New Charges Of Giving Support to Terrorist. New York Times B9

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Wang 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Tumer and Brainard 2007; Wang 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Tumer and Brainard 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Kendall et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleForest Ecosystems
AbbreviationFor. Ecosyst.
ISSN (online)2197-5620
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
Plant Science

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