How to format your references using the Forest Ecosystems citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Forest Ecosystems. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lee C-TA (2004) Geophysics. Are Earth’s core and mantle on speaking terms? Science 306:64–65
A journal article with 2 authors
Peters DH, Bloom G (2012) Developing world: Bring order to unregulated health markets. Nature 487:163–165
A journal article with 3 authors
Martin WF, Sousa FL, Lane N (2014) Evolution. Energy at life’s origin. Science 344:1092–1093
A journal article with 5 or more authors
van Breugel M, Hirono M, Andreeva A, et al (2011) Structures of SAS-6 suggest its organization in centrioles. Science 331:1196–1199

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Chakrabarty P (2012) A Guide to Academia. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK
An edited book
Shi Y, Wang S, Kou G, Wallenius J (eds) (2011) New State of MCDM in the 21st Century: Selected Papers of the 20th International Conference on Multiple Criteria Decision Making 2009. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
De Nies T, Beecks C, Godin F, et al (2016) Normalized Semantic Web Distance. In: Sack H, Blomqvist E, d’Aquin M, et al. (eds) The Semantic Web. Latest Advances and New Domains: 13th International Conference, ESWC 2016, Heraklion, Crete, Greece, May 29 -- June 2, 2016, Proceedings. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 69–84

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Forest Ecosystems.

Blog post
Andrew E (2016) Why Alcohol Makes You Feel Warm – And Other Strange Effects It Has On The Brain. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1998) Small Business Administration: Planning for Loan Monitoring System Has Many Positive Features But Still Carries Implementation Challenges. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Reynolds PR (2004) Midkine (MK) Regulates Pulmonary Vascular Remodeling During Hypoxia. Doctoral dissertation, University of Cincinnati

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard M (2010) Old Is Good, Cheaper Is Better. New York Times E5

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Lee 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Lee 2004; Peters and Bloom 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Peters and Bloom 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (van Breugel et al. 2011)

About the journal

Full journal titleForest Ecosystems
AbbreviationFor. Ecosyst.
ISSN (online)2197-5620
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
Plant Science

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