How to format your references using the Forest Ecosystems citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Forest Ecosystems. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Callaway E (2012) Evolutionary biology: the lost appetites. Nature 486:S16-7
A journal article with 2 authors
Zukor K, He Z (2011) Regenerative medicine: drawing breath after spinal injury. Nature 475:177–178
A journal article with 3 authors
Aldaye FA, Palmer AL, Sleiman HF (2008) Assembling materials with DNA as the guide. Science 321:1795–1799
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Chen XH, Wu T, Wu G, et al (2008) Superconductivity at 43 K in SmFeAsO1-xFx. Nature 453:761–762

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hogg RM, Fulk RD (2011) A Grammar of Old English. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK
An edited book
Giambene G (ed) (2007) Resource Management in Satellite Networks: Optimization and Cross-Layer Design. Springer US, Boston, MA
A chapter in an edited book
Vish M, Shanley TP (2009) Acute Lung Injury and Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome. In: Wheeler DS, Wong HR, Shanley TP (eds) The Respiratory Tract in Pediatric Critical Illness and Injury. Springer, London, pp 1–17

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Forest Ecosystems.

Blog post
Andrews R (2016) Movement Has Been Detected Along The San Andreas Fault. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1968) Research and Development--and the Congress. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mirzalou R (2017) Design and simulation of an 8-PSK super regenerative receiver with new phase detection technique. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Cooper M (2017) An Orchestra Tuned to Thrive. New York Times AR12

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Callaway 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Zukor and He 2011; Callaway 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Zukor and He 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Chen et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleForest Ecosystems
AbbreviationFor. Ecosyst.
ISSN (online)2197-5620
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
Plant Science

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