How to format your references using the Forest Ecosystems citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Forest Ecosystems. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Collins F (2010) Scientists need a shorter path to research freedom. Nature 467:635
A journal article with 2 authors
Sourjik V, Berg HC (2004) Functional interactions between receptors in bacterial chemotaxis. Nature 428:437–441
A journal article with 3 authors
Akihiko T, Morioka Y, Behera SK (2014) Role of climate variability in the heatstroke death rates of Kanto region in Japan. Sci Rep 4:5655
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Crowther TW, Machmuller MB, Carey JC, et al (2018) Author Correction: Crowther et al. reply. Nature 560:E1

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Blackwood N (2014) Advanced Excel Reporting for Management Accountants. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Martinez-Vazquez J, Searle B (eds) (2007) Fiscal Equalization: Challenges in the Design of Intergovernmental Transfers. Springer US, Boston, MA
A chapter in an edited book
Hogg T, Fattal DA, Chen K-Y, Guha S (2010) Economic Applications of Quantum Information Processing. In: Basu B, Chakravarty SR, Chakrabarti BK, Gangopadhyay K (eds) Econophysics and Economics of Games, Social Choices and Quantitative Techniques. Springer, Milano, pp 32–43

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Forest Ecosystems.

Blog post
Andrew D (2015) Scientists At Work: Studying The Clay-Eating Chimps Of Budongo. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1974) Review of the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare’s Actions To Carry Out the Provisions of the National Cooley’s Anemia Control Act. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Nam Y-H (2008) On Throughput-Reliability-Delay Tradeoffs in Wireless Networks. Doctoral dissertation, Ohio State University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shpigel B (2017) Missing Tournament, Indiana Fires Coach. New York Times B10

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Collins 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Sourjik and Berg 2004; Collins 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Sourjik and Berg 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Crowther et al. 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleForest Ecosystems
AbbreviationFor. Ecosyst.
ISSN (online)2197-5620
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
Plant Science

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