How to format your references using the Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Sack FD. Plant sciences. Yoda would be proud: valves for land plants. Science. 2004;304:1461–2.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Lounis B, Moerner WE. Single photons on demand from a single molecule at room temperature. Nature. 2000;407:491–3.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Wu L-A, Segal D, Brumer P. No-go theorem for ground state cooling given initial system-thermal bath factorization. Sci Rep. 2013;3:1824.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Yu H, Lu C, Tieu AK, Godbole A, Su L, Sun Y, et al. Fabrication of ultra-thin nanostructured bimetallic foils by Accumulative Roll Bonding and Asymmetric Rolling. Sci Rep. 2013;3:2373.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Cannon DL. CISA®. Indianapolis, Indiana: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2016.
An edited book
1. Larouche P, Cserne P, editors. National Legal Systems and Globalization: New Role, Continuing Relevance. The Hague, The Netherlands: T. M. C. Asser Press; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Hallett M. Zermelo 1904. In: Ebbinghaus H-D, Fraser CG, Kanamori A, editors. Ernst Zermelo - Collected Works/Gesammelte Werke: Volume I - Set Theory, Miscellanea / Band I - Mengenlehre, Varia. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2010. p. 80–119.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health.

Blog post
1. O`Callaghan J. Non-Magnetic Metals Turned Magnetic In Groundbreaking Research [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Contractors’ Independent Research and Development Program--Issues and Alternatives. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1975 Jun. Report No.: PSAD-75-82.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Kraynik MJ. Perceptions of U.S. Navy managers toward telecommuting as a management approach: A phenomenological study [Doctoral dissertation]. [Phoenix, AZ]: University of Phoenix; 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Saslow L. Nassau and Suffolk Expecting More Funds. New York Times. 2008 Dec 21;LI5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Immigrant and Minority Health
AbbreviationJ. Immigr. Minor. Health
ISSN (print)1557-1912
ISSN (online)1557-1920
Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

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