How to format your references using the Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Arendt AA. Geophysics. Assessing the status of Alaska’s glaciers. Science. 2011;332:1044–5.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Caughey B, Baron GS. Prions and their partners in crime. Nature. 2006;443:803–10.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Soukoulis CM, Linden S, Wegener M. Physics. Negative refractive index at optical wavelengths. Science. 2007;315:47–9.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Hole JA, Catchings RD, St Clair KC, Rymer MJ, Okaya DA, Carney BJ. Steep-dip seismic imaging of the shallow San Andreas fault near Parkfield. Science. 2001;294:1513–5.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Valière J-C. Acoustic Particle Velocity Measurements Using Lasers. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2014.
An edited book
1. István F, Bitó J, Bakki P, editors. Advances in Mobile and Wireless Communications: Views of the 16th IST Mobile and Wireless Communication Summit. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Daněk M, Kafka L, Kohout L, Sýkora J, Bartosiński R. The Basic UTLEON3 Architecture. In: Kafka L, Kohout L, Sýkora J, Bartosinski R, editors. UTLEON3: Exploring Fine-Grain Multi-Threading in FPGAs. New York, NY: Springer; 2013. p. 45–66.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. New Fossil Provides Insight On The Origins Of Echolocation In The Toothed Whale [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. FAA Budget: Key Issues Need to Be Addressed. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1992 Apr. Report No.: T-RCED-92-51.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Bradford J. Commutative endomorphism rings of simple abelian varieties over finite fields [Doctoral dissertation]. [College Park, MD]: University of Maryland, College Park; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Vecsey G. A Continent’s Hopes Are Swatted Away. New York Times. 2010 Jul 3;D1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Immigrant and Minority Health
AbbreviationJ. Immigr. Minor. Health
ISSN (print)1557-1912
ISSN (online)1557-1920
Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

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