How to format your references using the Theoretical Population Biology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Theoretical Population Biology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kelly, D.P., 2012. Medicine. Irisin, light my fire. Science 336, 42–43.
A journal article with 2 authors
Burch, C.L., Chao, L., 2000. Evolvability of an RNA virus is determined by its mutational neighbourhood. Nature 406, 625–628.
A journal article with 3 authors
Nava, E., Steiger, T., Röder, B., 2014. Both developmental and adult vision shape body representations. Sci. Rep. 4, 6622.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Rossi, D.J., Bryder, D., Seita, J., Nussenzweig, A., Hoeijmakers, J., Weissman, I.L., 2007. Deficiencies in DNA damage repair limit the function of haematopoietic stem cells with age. Nature 447, 725–729.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Pesavento, L., Smoleny, S., 2015. A Trader’s Guide to Financial Astrology. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Bernstein, D.J., Chatterjee, S. (Eds.), 2011. Progress in Cryptology – INDOCRYPT 2011: 12th International Conference on Cryptology in India, Chennai, India, December 11-14, 2011. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Eliades, T., Eliades, G., Silikas, N., Watts, D.C., 2005. Orthodontic Bonding to Wet Enamel with Water-Insensitive and Water-Activated Orthodontic Adhesive Resins, in: Eliades, George, Watts, D., Eliades, Theodore (Eds.), Dental Hard Tissues and Bonding: Interfacial Phenomena and Related Properties. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 71–85.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Theoretical Population Biology.

Blog post
Hamilton, K., 2016. Underwater Robots Help Scientists See Where Marine Larvae Go And How They Get There [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2004. Information Technology: Early Releases of Customs Trade System Operating, but Pattern of Cost and Schedule Problems Needs to Be Addressed (No. GAO-04-719). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Alsari, F., 2015. Training needs analysis for women in educational leadership in Saudi Arabia (Doctoral dissertation). Pepperdine University, Malibu, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Stewart, J.B., 2017. Case Study in Chaos: Management Experts Grade a Trump White House. New York Times B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kelly, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Burch and Chao, 2000; Kelly, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Burch and Chao, 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Rossi et al., 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleTheoretical Population Biology
AbbreviationTheor. Popul. Biol.
ISSN (print)0040-5809
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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