How to format your references using the Theoretical Population Biology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Theoretical Population Biology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Held, I., 2014. Climate change. Simplicity amid complexity. Science 343, 1206–1207.
A journal article with 2 authors
Crisp, R.J., Meleady, R., 2012. Adapting to a multicultural future. Science 336, 853–855.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zimmerman, A., Bai, L., Ginty, D.D., 2014. The gentle touch receptors of mammalian skin. Science 346, 950–954.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Tsao, D.Y., Freiwald, W.A., Tootell, R.B.H., Livingstone, M.S., 2006. A cortical region consisting entirely of face-selective cells. Science 311, 670–674.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Andersson, C., Freeman, D., James, I., Johnston, A., Ljung, S., 2006. Mobile Media and Applications - From Concept to Cash. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Yamada, S., 2016. OSS Reliability Measurement and Assessment, 1st ed. 2016. ed, Springer Series in Reliability Engineering. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Scatena, R., Bottoni, P., Giardina, B., 2009. Cellular Respiration and Dedifferentiation, in: Sarangarajan, R., Apte, S. (Eds.), Cellular Respiration and Carcinogenesis. Humana Press, Totowa, NJ, pp. 45–54.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Theoretical Population Biology.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. Why Do We Sleep? [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1986. DOD Schools: Funding and Operating Alternatives for Education of Dependents (No. HRD-87-16). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Eastwood, J.L., 2010. The effects of an interdisciplinary undergraduate human biology program on socioscientific reasoning, content learning, and understanding of inquiry (Doctoral dissertation). Indiana University, Bloomington, IN.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, C., 2007. The $250,000 Question. New York Times F1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Held, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Crisp and Meleady, 2012; Held, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Crisp and Meleady, 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Tsao et al., 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleTheoretical Population Biology
AbbreviationTheor. Popul. Biol.
ISSN (print)0040-5809
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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