How to format your references using the Theoretical Population Biology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Theoretical Population Biology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Jonietz, E., 2011. Designing smarter cancer prevention trials. Nature 471, S20-1.
A journal article with 2 authors
Aguzzi, A., Haass, C., 2003. Games played by rogue proteins in prion disorders and Alzheimer’s disease. Science 302, 814–818.
A journal article with 3 authors
Häkkinen, S., Rhines, P.B., Worthen, D.L., 2011. Atmospheric blocking and Atlantic multidecadal ocean variability. Science 334, 655–659.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
De Leo, G.A., Rizzi, L., Caizzi, A., Gatto, M., 2001. Carbon emissions. The economic benefits of the Kyoto Protocol. Nature 413, 478–479.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Tobias, J., Hochhauser, D., 2014. Cancer and its Management. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Pasetta, V., 2005. Modeling Foundations of Economic Property Rights Theory: An Axiomatic Analysis of Economic Agreements, Studies in Economic Theory. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Nyström, I., Olsson, P., Nysjö, J., Nysjö, F., Malmberg, F., Seipel, S., Hirsch, J.-M., Carlbom, I.B., 2016. Virtual Cranio-Maxillofacial Surgery Planning with Stereo Graphics and Haptics, in: Ritacco, L.E., Milano, F.E., Chao, E. (Eds.), Computer-Assisted Musculoskeletal Surgery: Thinking and Executing in 3D. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 29–42.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Theoretical Population Biology.

Blog post
Hale, T., 2016. Golden Curse Tablets Have Been Found In A Roman Tomb [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2014. DOD Business Systems Modernization: Air Force Business System Schedule and Cost Estimates (No. GAO-14-152). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kinney, C.E., 2009. Realtime controller tuning for periodic disturbance rejection with application to active noise control (Doctoral dissertation). University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Steel, E., Koblin, J., 2017. Lawyer Says Fox News Is Under Investigation. New York Times B5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Jonietz, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Aguzzi and Haass, 2003; Jonietz, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Aguzzi and Haass, 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (De Leo et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleTheoretical Population Biology
AbbreviationTheor. Popul. Biol.
ISSN (print)0040-5809
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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