How to format your references using the Theoretical Population Biology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Theoretical Population Biology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
MacWilliams, B., 2001. It’s a dog’s life for Siberian foxes. Nature 412, 845.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bian, Y., Gong, Q., 2014. Tuning the hybridization of plasmonic and coupled dielectric nanowire modes for high-performance optical waveguiding at sub-diffraction-limited scale. Sci. Rep. 4, 6617.
A journal article with 3 authors
Whitfield, C.W., Cziko, A.-M., Robinson, G.E., 2003. Gene expression profiles in the brain predict behavior in individual honey bees. Science 302, 296–299.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Wu, J., Boyle, E., Sunda, W., Wen, L.S., 2001. Soluble and colloidal iron in the oligotrophic North Atlantic and North Pacific. Science 293, 847–849.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bartlett, K., 2016. The Experience of History. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Liu, C.-L., Hussain, A., Luo, B., Tan, K.C., Zeng, Y., Zhang, Z. (Eds.), 2016. Advances in Brain Inspired Cognitive Systems: 8th International Conference, BICS 2016, Beijing, China, November 28-30, 2016, Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Beziau, J.-Y., Franceschetto, A., 2015. Strong Three-Valued Paraconsistent Logics, in: Beziau, J.-Y., Chakraborty, M., Dutta, S. (Eds.), New Directions in Paraconsistent Logic: 5th WCP, Kolkata, India, February 2014, Springer Proceedings in Mathematics & Statistics. Springer India, New Delhi, pp. 131–145.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Theoretical Population Biology.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2016. The Trolley Dilemma: Would You Kill One Person To Save Five? [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2007. Federal Aviation Administration: Viability of Current Funding Structure for Aviation Activities and Observations on Funding Provisions of Reauthorization Proposals (No. GAO-07-1104T). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Jurka, J., 2010. The importance of being a complement: CED effects revisited (Doctoral dissertation). University of Maryland, College Park, College Park, MD.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Cain, S., 2017. Followers Wanted. New York Times SR1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (MacWilliams, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Bian and Gong, 2014; MacWilliams, 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Bian and Gong, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Wu et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleTheoretical Population Biology
AbbreviationTheor. Popul. Biol.
ISSN (print)0040-5809
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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