How to format your references using the Journal of Hospital Total Quality Management citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Hospital Total Quality Management. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
[1]
Radford T. Of course scientists can communicate. Nature 2011;469:445.
A journal article with 2 authors
[1]
McNamara AK, Zhong S. Thermochemical structures beneath Africa and the Pacific Ocean. Nature 2005;437:1136–9.
A journal article with 3 authors
[1]
Gilman RT, Nuismer SL, Jhwueng D-C. Coevolution in multidimensional trait space favours escape from parasites and pathogens. Nature 2012;483:328–30.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
[1]
Prainsack B, Reardon J, Hindmarsh R, Gottweis H, Naue U, Lunshof JE. Personal genomes: Misdirected precaution. Nature 2008;456:34–5.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
[1]
Arthur D. Little, Inc. Making EHS an Integral Part of Process Design. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2010.
An edited book
[1]
Badonnel R, Koch R, Pras A, Drašar M, Stiller B, editors. Management and Security in the Age of Hyperconnectivity: 10th IFIP WG 6.6 International Conference on Autonomous Infrastructure, Management, and Security, AIMS 2016, Munich, Germany, June 20-23, 2016, Proceedings. vol. 9701. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
[1]
Bodo E, Migliorati V. Theoretical Description of Ionic Liquids. In: Caminiti R, Gontrani L, editors. The Structure of Ionic Liquids, Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014, p. 127–48.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Hospital Total Quality Management.

Blog post
[1]
O`Callaghan J. This 360-Degree Camera Will Give You A Virtual Reality Astronaut Experience On The ISS. IFLScience 2015. https://www.iflscience.com/space/360-degree-camera-will-give-you-virtual-reality-astronaut-experience-iss/ (accessed October 30, 2018).

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
[1]
Government Accountability Office. U.S. Citizens Studying Medicine Abroad. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1985.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
[1]
Skiold-Hanlin S. Functional and Ecological Aspects of the Mucus Trails of the Freshwater Gastropod Elimia potosiensis. Doctoral dissertation. Southern Illinois University, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
[1]
Loomis G. Baroque Opera at the Ambronay Festival. New York Times 2012:0.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Hospital Total Quality Management
ISSN (print)2468-1202
Scope

Other styles