How to format your references using the Journal of Hospital Total Quality Management citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Hospital Total Quality Management. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:


PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
[1]
Read P. Planetary science: plumbing the depths of Uranus and Neptune. Nature 2013;497:323–4.
A journal article with 2 authors
[1]
Kahane G, Shackel N. Do abnormal responses show utilitarian bias? Nature 2008;452:E5; author reply E5-6.
A journal article with 3 authors
[1]
Wasan DT, Nikolov AD, Brenner H. Fluid dynamics. Droplets speeding on surfaces. Science 2001;291:605–6.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
[1]
Arenz A, Silver RA, Schaefer AT, Margrie TW. The contribution of single synapses to sensory representation in vivo. Science 2008;321:977–80.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
[1]
Sóbester A, Forrester AIJ. Aircraft Aerodynamic Design. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2014.
An edited book
[1]
Harrison T, editor. Paleontology and Geology of Laetoli: Human Evolution in Context: Volume 2: Fossil Hominins and the Associated Fauna. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
[1]
Boulding JR. The Family as a Way Into the Future (1978). In: Boulding JR, editor. Elise Boulding: Writings on Feminism, the Family and Quakerism, Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016, p. 71–85.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Hospital Total Quality Management.

Blog post
[1]
Hale T. Satellite Images Of Lakes In Siberia Could Show Something Worrying. IFLScience 2017. https://www.iflscience.com/environment/satellite-images-of-lakes-in-siberia-could-show-something-worrying/ (accessed October 30, 2018).

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
[1]
Government Accountability Office. Effectiveness and Administration of the Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1973.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
[1]
Redcay JD. Kindergarten students’ reading performance and perceptions of Ludus Reading: A mixed-method study. Doctoral dissertation. University of Phoenix, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
[1]
Weiser B, Protess B. New Chief for U.S. Crime Division. New York Times 2016:B5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Hospital Total Quality Management
ISSN (print)2468-1202
Scope

Other styles