How to format your references using the Journal of Hospital Total Quality Management citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Hospital Total Quality Management. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Alverson K. Watching over the world’s oceans. Nature 2005;434:19–20.
A journal article with 2 authors
Peacock T, Bradley E. Applied physics. Going with (or against) the flow. Science 2008;320:1302–3.
A journal article with 3 authors
Goldman YE, Franzini-Armstrong C, Armstrong CM. Andrew Fielding Huxley (1917-2012). Nature 2012;486:474.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Xiao S, Liu D, Wang Y, Yang Z, Chen W. Temporal variation of methane flux from Xiangxi Bay of the Three Gorges Reservoir. Sci Rep 2013;3:2500.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Stahl S. Real Analysis. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2011.
An edited book
Panda M, Dehuri S, Wang G-N, editors. Social Networking: Mining, Visualization, and Security. vol. 65. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Scher CS, Chui I, Miller SM. General Principles of Intraoperative Management of the Severe Blunt or Polytrauma Patient: The Resuscitative Phase. In: Scher CS, editor. Anesthesia for Trauma: New Evidence and New Challenges, New York, NY: Springer; 2014, p. 81–105.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Hospital Total Quality Management.

Blog post
Davis J. Global Carbon Emissions Remain Constant For Third Year In A Row. IFLScience 2017. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Motor Vehicle Safety: Selected Rulemakings by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1989.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Barrie DB. On the interaction of wind energy with climate and weather. Doctoral dissertation. University of Maryland, College Park, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Poniewozik J. War Is Hell? No, One-Dimensional. New York Times 2017:AR116.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Hospital Total Quality Management
ISSN (print)2468-1202

Other styles