How to format your references using the Journal of Homotopy and Related Structures citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Homotopy and Related Structures. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Jensen, M.C.: IMMUNOLOGY. Synthetic immunobiology boosts the IQ of T cells. Science. 350, 514–515 (2015)
A journal article with 2 authors
Rappaport, S.M., Smith, M.T.: Epidemiology. Environment and disease risks. Science. 330, 460–461 (2010)
A journal article with 3 authors
Halevy, I., Johnston, D.T., Schrag, D.P.: Explaining the structure of the Archean mass-independent sulfur isotope record. Science. 329, 204–207 (2010)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Richard, C., Balavoine, F., Schultz, P., Ebbesen, T.W., Mioskowski, C.: Supramolecular self-assembly of lipid derivatives on carbon nanotubes. Science. 300, 775–778 (2003)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Geng, H.: Data Center Handbook. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ (2014)
An edited book
Vitale, K. ed: Environmental and Food Safety and Security for South-East Europe and Ukraine. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht (2012)
A chapter in an edited book
Han, L., Hancock, E.R., Wilson, R.C.: Entropy versus Heterogeneity for Graphs. In: Jiang, X., Ferrer, M., and Torsello, A. (eds.) Graph-Based Representations in Pattern Recognition: 8th IAPR-TC-15 International Workshop, GbRPR 2011, Münster, Germany, May 18-20, 2011. Proceedings. pp. 32–41. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2011)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Homotopy and Related Structures.

Blog post
Luntz, S.: First Primate’s Lifestyle All In The Ankles,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Gray Market Vehicle Program: Extension Warranted, but Improvements in Vehicle Identification Are Needed. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1994)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Green, D.J.: Shoulder functional anatomy and development – Implications for interpreting early hominin locomotion, (2010)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
de la MERCED, M.J., Steel, E.: As Content Makers Rise, Malone Eyes Consolidation, (2017)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Homotopy and Related Structures
AbbreviationJ. Homotopy Relat. Struct.
ISSN (print)2193-8407
ISSN (online)1512-2891
ScopeAlgebra and Number Theory
Geometry and Topology

Other styles