How to format your references using the Journal of Homotopy and Related Structures citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Homotopy and Related Structures. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Grantham, J.: Be persuasive. Be brave. Be arrested (if necessary). Nature. 491, 303 (2012)
A journal article with 2 authors
Butz, W.P., Torrey, B.B.: Some frontiers in social science. Science. 312, 1898–1900 (2006)
A journal article with 3 authors
Smith, J., Theodoris, C., Davidson, E.H.: A gene regulatory network subcircuit drives a dynamic pattern of gene expression. Science. 318, 794–797 (2007)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Li, L.L., Zhang, P., Zhang, Z.J., Zhang, Z.F.: Intrinsically higher fatigue cracking resistance of the penetrable and movable incoherent twin boundary. Sci. Rep. 4, 3744 (2014)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Mynbaev, K.T.: Short-Memory Linear Processes and Econometric Applications. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ (2011)
An edited book
Baasten, M.F.J., Munk, R. eds: Studies in Hebrew Literature and Jewish Culture: Presented to Albert van der Heide on the Occasion of his Sixty-Fifth Birthday. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht (2007)
A chapter in an edited book
Dowdy, J.K.: Carnival Characters in the Classroom. In: Dowdy, J.K. and Kaplan, S. (eds.) Teaching Drama in the Classroom: A Toolbox for Teachers. pp. 17–20. SensePublishers, Rotterdam (2011)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Homotopy and Related Structures.

Blog post
Andrew, E.: How Big Are The Largest Marine Animals?,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Head Start: A More Comprehensive Risk Management Strategy and Data Improvements Could Further Strengthen Program Oversight. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (2008)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Le, C.T.: Academic performance of college students as related to depression from stress, (2013)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G.: In Season of Defense, Recalling Swoboda’s Catch, (2009)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Homotopy and Related Structures
AbbreviationJ. Homotopy Relat. Struct.
ISSN (print)2193-8407
ISSN (online)1512-2891
ScopeAlgebra and Number Theory
Geometry and Topology

Other styles