How to format your references using the Journal of Homotopy and Related Structures citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Homotopy and Related Structures. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Deichmann, U.: An unholy alliance. The Nazis showed that “politically responsible” science risks losing its soul. Nature. 405, 739 (2000)
A journal article with 2 authors
Rosen, J.M., Jordan, C.T.: The increasing complexity of the cancer stem cell paradigm. Science. 324, 1670–1673 (2009)
A journal article with 3 authors
Giulini, A., Wang, J., Jackson, D.: Control of phyllotaxy by the cytokinin-inducible response regulator homologue ABPHYL1. Nature. 430, 1031–1034 (2004)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Ogawa, H., Amagai, Y., Koike, I., Kaiser, K., Benner, R.: Production of refractory dissolved organic matter by bacteria. Science. 292, 917–920 (2001)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Woolf, G.: Tales of the Barbarians. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK (2011)
An edited book
Aubin, J.-P.: Viability Theory: New Directions. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2011)
A chapter in an edited book
Zaitch, D., Staring, R.: The Flesh is Weak, the Spirit Even Weaker Clients and Trafficked Women in the Netherlands. In: Nicola, A.D., Cauduro, A., Lombardi, M., and Ruspini, P. (eds.) Prostitution and Human Trafficking: Focus on Clients. pp. 67–121. Springer, New York, NY (2009)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Homotopy and Related Structures.

Blog post
Andrew, E.: Second Group of Isolated Indians Contact Outsiders Following Attacks,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: [Comments on DOD Data Center Consolidation Plan]. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1994)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hall, D.: Resistance, reluctance, and revelation: Examining faculty perceptions of online learning options at a Faith-Based university, (2015)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh, M.W.: Ruling Sets Up Pension Battle in Bankrupt City, (2013)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Homotopy and Related Structures
AbbreviationJ. Homotopy Relat. Struct.
ISSN (print)2193-8407
ISSN (online)1512-2891
ScopeAlgebra and Number Theory
Geometry and Topology

Other styles