How to format your references using the Journal of Homotopy and Related Structures citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Homotopy and Related Structures. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Williams, Q.: Geophysics. Deep mantle matters. Science. 344, 800–801 (2014)
A journal article with 2 authors
Swetter, S.M., Geller, A.C.: Perspective: catch melanoma early. Nature. 515, S117 (2014)
A journal article with 3 authors
Zanardi, I., Zifarelli, G., Pusch, M.: An optical assay of the transport activity of ClC-7. Sci. Rep. 3, 1231 (2013)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Först, C.J., Ashman, C.R., Schwarz, K., Blöchl, P.E.: The interface between silicon and a high-k oxide. Nature. 427, 53–56 (2004)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
ASAE: 7 Measures of Success. ASAE: The Center for Association Leadership, Washington, DC (2013)
An edited book
Kulshrestha, U., Saxena, P. eds: Plant Responses to Air Pollution. Springer, Singapore (2016)
A chapter in an edited book
Singh, M.K., Kumar, H., Gupta, M.P., Madaan, J.: The Social Media Cone: Towards Achieving the Manufacturing Competitiveness Goals. In: Dwivedi, Y.K., Mäntymäki, M., Ravishankar, M.N., Janssen, M., Clement, M., Slade, E.L., Rana, N.P., Al-Sharhan, S., and Simintiras, A.C. (eds.) Social Media: The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly: 15th IFIP WG 6.11 Conference on e-Business, e-Services, and e-Society, I3E 2016, Swansea, UK, September 13–15, 2016, Proceedings. pp. 53–58. Springer International Publishing, Cham (2016)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Homotopy and Related Structures.

Blog post
Taub, B.: Two Billion Children Are Breathing Unsafe Air Right Now,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Ownership by Minority, Female, and Disadvantaged Firms in the Pipeline Industry. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (2012)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ekici, T.: An Investigation of Credit Card Debt: The Effect of Price and Income Expectations and the Impact on Consumption, (2006)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Barron, J.: Vintage ‘Glass Menagerie’ Performance Will Return to Air, (2016)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Homotopy and Related Structures
AbbreviationJ. Homotopy Relat. Struct.
ISSN (print)2193-8407
ISSN (online)1512-2891
ScopeAlgebra and Number Theory
Geometry and Topology

Other styles