How to format your references using the Economic Modelling citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Economic Modelling. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Rezende, E.L., 2013. Evolution. Better oxygen delivery. Science 340, 1293–1294.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lucić, V., Baumeister, W., 2005. Neuroscience. Monte Carlo places strong odds on ectopic release. Science 309, 387–388.
A journal article with 3 authors
Pelechano, V., Wei, W., Steinmetz, L.M., 2013. Extensive transcriptional heterogeneity revealed by isoform profiling. Nature 497, 127–131.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Downs, J.P., Daeschler, E.B., Jenkins, F.A., Jr, Shubin, N.H., 2008. The cranial endoskeleton of Tiktaalik roseae. Nature 455, 925–929.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Onstott, S., 2017. AutoCAD® and AutoCAD LT® Essentials. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Indianapolis, Indiana.
An edited book
Ardissono, L., Kuflik, T. (Eds.), 2012. Advances in User Modeling: UMAP 2011 Workshops, Girona, Spain, July 11-15, 2011, Revised Selected Papers, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Stone, M., Oh, I., 2008. Modeling Facial Expression of Uncertainty in Conversational Animation, in: Wachsmuth, I., Knoblich, G. (Eds.), Modeling Communication with Robots and Virtual Humans: Second ZiF Research Group International Workshop on Embodied Communication in Humans and Machines, Bielefeld, Germany, April 5-8, 2006, Revised Selected Papers, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 57–76.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Economic Modelling.

Blog post
Evans, K., 2016. 17 Science-Backed Ways Men Can Appear More Attractive To Women [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1998. National Airspace System: Status of Wide Area Augmentation System Project (No. RCED-98-79). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Dubin-Thaler, B.J., 2008. Evidence for hierarchical control of conserved, discrete motility types in crawling motility (Doctoral dissertation). Columbia University, New York, NY.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow, B.Y.K., 2001. Dreams of a Summer Camp Take the Form of Reality. New York Times G10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Rezende, 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Lucić and Baumeister, 2005; Rezende, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Lucić and Baumeister, 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Downs et al., 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleEconomic Modelling
AbbreviationEcon. Model.
ISSN (print)0264-9993
ScopeEconomics and Econometrics

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