How to format your references using the Economic Modelling citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Economic Modelling. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ambros, V., 2001. Development. Dicing up RNAs. Science 293, 811–813.
A journal article with 2 authors
Stein, R.S., Toda, S., 2013. Geophysics. Megacity megaquakes--two near misses. Science 341, 850–852.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hooper, L.V., Littman, D.R., Macpherson, A.J., 2012. Interactions between the microbiota and the immune system. Science 336, 1268–1273.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Lu, X., Huang, B., Zheng, J., Tao, Y., Yu, W., Tang, L., Zhu, R., Li, S., Li, L., 2014. Decompressive craniectomy for the treatment of malignant infarction of the middle cerebral artery. Sci. Rep. 4, 7070.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Green, S.D., 2011. Making Sense of Construction Improvement. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK.
An edited book
Goues, C.L., Yoo, S. (Eds.), 2014. Search-Based Software Engineering: 6th International Symposium, SSBSE 2014, Fortaleza, Brazil, August 26-29, 2014. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Liu, R., Zhang, H., Yang, Z., 2013. How Does a Researcher Become an Entrepreneur in the High-Tech Industrial Cluster? A Case Study, in: Ferreira, J.J.M., Raposo, M., Rutten, R., Varga, A. (Eds.), Cooperation, Clusters, and Knowledge Transfer: Universities and Firms Towards Regional Competitiveness, Advances in Spatial Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 59–80.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Economic Modelling.

Blog post
Carpineti, A., 2016. SpaceX Has Started Testing Its Mars Rocket Engine [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1988. Telecommunications Acquisitions: Information on GSA’s Procurements (No. IMTEC-88-24). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Jackson, M.E., 2010. Where are the parents: The parent’s perspective of parental involvement in education (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Leland, J., 2017. The City Awakens. New York Times MB7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ambros, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Ambros, 2001; Stein and Toda, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Stein and Toda, 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Lu et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleEconomic Modelling
AbbreviationEcon. Model.
ISSN (print)0264-9993
ScopeEconomics and Econometrics

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