How to format your references using the Economic Modelling citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Economic Modelling. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kilpatrick, A.M., 2011. Globalization, land use, and the invasion of West Nile virus. Science 334, 323–327.
A journal article with 2 authors
McAdams, H.H., Shapiro, L., 2003. A bacterial cell-cycle regulatory network operating in time and space. Science 301, 1874–1877.
A journal article with 3 authors
Tschöp, M., Smiley, D.L., Heiman, M.L., 2000. Ghrelin induces adiposity in rodents. Nature 407, 908–913.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Toh, R.J., Peng, W.K., Han, J., Pumera, M., 2014. Direct in vivo electrochemical detection of haemoglobin in red blood cells. Sci. Rep. 4, 6209.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Moloney, M.G., 2015. How to Solve Organic Reaction Mechanisms. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Pokorski, M. (Ed.), 2016. Advances in Clinical Science, 1st ed. 2016. ed, Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Lahr, J., Kahn, B., Morton, S., 2007. Radioanalytical Chemistry Principles and Practices, in: Kahn, B. (Ed.), Radioanalytical Chemistry. Springer, New York, NY, pp. 64–76.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Economic Modelling.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. What Caused Those Spectacular Northern Lights – And How You Can Catch Them Next Time [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2005. Charter Schools: To Enhance Education’s Monitoring and Research, More Charter School-Level Data Are Needed (No. GAO-05-5). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ryan, J.I., 2017. Analysis of the role of the Jackson Prairie in prehistoric/protohistoric settlement patterns using survey data from the Bienville National Forest (Doctoral dissertation). Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sisario, B., 2017. The Killers’ 5th Album Tops Billboard Chart. New York Times C3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kilpatrick, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Kilpatrick, 2011; McAdams and Shapiro, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (McAdams and Shapiro, 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Toh et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleEconomic Modelling
AbbreviationEcon. Model.
ISSN (print)0264-9993
ScopeEconomics and Econometrics

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