How to format your references using the Economic Modelling citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Economic Modelling. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Haxton, W., 2014. Neutrino physics: What makes the Sun shine. Nature 512, 378–380.
A journal article with 2 authors
Padoa-Schioppa, C., Assad, J.A., 2006. Neurons in the orbitofrontal cortex encode economic value. Nature 441, 223–226.
A journal article with 3 authors
Callier, V., Clack, J.A., Ahlberg, P.E., 2009. Contrasting developmental trajectories in the earliest known tetrapod forelimbs. Science 324, 364–367.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Lee, S.S., Kennedy, S., Tolonen, A.C., Ruvkun, G., 2003. DAF-16 target genes that control C. elegans life-span and metabolism. Science 300, 644–647.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wang, J., Wang, Q., 2012. Body Area Communications. John Wiley & Sons (Asia) Pte Ltd, Singapore.
An edited book
Gerlach, M., Warnke, A., Greenhill, L. (Eds.), 2014. Psychiatric Drugs in Children and Adolescents: Basic Pharmacology and Practical Applications. Springer, Vienna.
A chapter in an edited book
Islam, S.M.N., Watanapalachaikul, S., 2005. Stock Valuation Models, in: Watanapalachaikul, S. (Ed.), Empirical Finance: Modelling and Analysis of Emerging Financial and Stock Markets, Contributions to Economics. Physica-Verlag HD, Heidelberg, pp. 65–89.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Economic Modelling.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. Man Receives First Scalp And Skull Transplant [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1986. Digests of Unpublished Decisions of the Comptroller General of the United States, Vol. II, No. 12 (No. 131721). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Chamberlain, A.D., 2014. Policy and Behavior: Essays in Applied Microeconomics (Doctoral dissertation). University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
(nyt), S.K., 2005. World Briefing | Europe: Russia: Hacker Halts New Kremlin TV Channel. New York Times A16.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Haxton, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Haxton, 2014; Padoa-Schioppa and Assad, 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Padoa-Schioppa and Assad, 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Lee et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleEconomic Modelling
AbbreviationEcon. Model.
ISSN (print)0264-9993
ScopeEconomics and Econometrics

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