How to format your references using the Journal of Historical Linguistics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Historical Linguistics (JHL). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik, Paul. 2003. Redressing the balance. Nature 424:6948.593.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gheiratmand, Mina & Kathy T. Mullen. 2014. Orientation tuning in human colour vision at detection threshold. Scientific reports 4.4285.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kaina, Nadège, Mathias Fink, & Geoffroy Lerosey. 2013. Composite media mixing Bragg and local resonances for highly attenuating and broad bandgaps. Scientific reports 3.3240.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Mochizuki, N., S. Yamashita, K. Kurokawa, Y. Ohba, T. Nagai, A. Miyawaki, & M. Matsuda. 2001. Spatio-temporal images of growth-factor-induced activation of Ras and Rap1. Nature 411:6841.1065–1068.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hamdan, Mahmoud & Pier Giorgio Righetti. 2005. Proteomics Today. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Gollmann, Dieter & Felix C. Freiling (Eds.). 2012. Information Security: 15th International Conference, ISC 2012, Passau, Germany, September 19-21, 2012. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Sánchez, Raúl, Álvaro Herrero, & Emilio Corchado. 2013. Clustering for Intrusion Detection: Network Scans as a Case of Study. International Joint Conference CISIS’12-ICEUTE´12-SOCO´12 Special Sessions ed. by Herrero Álvaro Václav Snášel Ajith Abraham Ivan Zelinka Bruno Baruque Héctor Quintián José Luis Calvo Javier Sedano & Emilio Corchado, 33–45. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Historical Linguistics.

Blog post
Luntz, Stephen. 2015. Antarctic Temperatures Reach Record Highs. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1980. U.S. General Accounting Office Strategic Plan for Administrative ADP Systems, 1981-85. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lam, Genevieve. 2017. A Mixed Methods Study Examining Teacher Impressions of a Psychoeducational Program on Common Issues During Childhood. Unpublished thesis, Pepperdine University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gordon, Michael R. 2017. Inside the American Air War Over Syria: A High Altitude ‘Poker Game’. New York TimesA7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smaglik 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Smaglik 2003, Gheiratmand & Mullen 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Gheiratmand & Mullen 2014)
  • Three authors: (Kaina, Fink, & Lerosey 2013)
  • 4 or more authors: (Mochizuki et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Historical Linguistics
AbbreviationJ. Hist. Linguist.
ISSN (print)2210-2116
ISSN (online)2210-2124
ScopeLanguage and Linguistics
Linguistics and Language

Other styles