How to format your references using the The Patient - Patient-Centered Outcomes Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Patient - Patient-Centered Outcomes Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Rensberger B. Science journalism: Too close for comfort. Nature. 2009;459:1055–6.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Kidder SQ, Vonder Haar TH. Atmospheric science. Observing weather from space. Science. 2010;327:1085–6.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Hunt N, McGrath D, Stergiou N. The influence of auditory-motor coupling on fractal dynamics in human gait. Sci Rep. 2014;4:5879.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Dillehay TD, Ramírez C, Pino M, Collins MB, Rossen J, Pino-Navarro JD. Monte Verde: seaweed, food, medicine, and the peopling of South America. Science. 2008;320:784–6.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Good PI, Hardin JW. Common Errors in Statistics (and How to Avoid Them). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2006.
An edited book
1. Bruguière C, Tiberghien A, Clément P, editors. Topics and Trends in Current Science Education: 9th ESERA Conference Selected Contributions. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Devetag G, Gaffeo E, Gallegati M, Giulioni G. Financial Fragility and Scaling Distributions in the Laboratory. In: Namatame A, Kaizouji T, Aruka Y, editors. The Complex Networks of Economic Interactions: Essays in Agent-Based Economics and Econophysics. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2006. p. 61–76.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Patient - Patient-Centered Outcomes Research.

Blog post
1. Evans K. NASA’s $1 Billion Jupiter Probe Has Suffered 2 Big Problems In 2 Days. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Financial Management: Misstatements of NASA’s Statement of Budgetary Resources. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2001 Mar. Report No.: GAO-01-438.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Hester ET. Impact of geomorphic structures on hyporheic exchange, temperature, and ecological processes in streams [Doctoral dissertation]. [Chapel Hill, NC]: University of North Carolina; 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Paulson M. Bernadette Peters To Join ‘Hello, Dolly!’ New York Times. 2017 Sep 5;C3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Patient - Patient-Centered Outcomes Research
ISSN (print)1178-1653
ISSN (online)1178-1661

Other styles