How to format your references using the The Patient - Patient-Centered Outcomes Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Patient - Patient-Centered Outcomes Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Rowlett P. The unplanned impact of mathematics. Nature. 2011;475:166–9.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Corma A, Serna P. Chemoselective hydrogenation of nitro compounds with supported gold catalysts. Science. 2006;313:332–4.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Sun J-Y, Wu X-S, Wu L-G. Single and multiple vesicle fusion induce different rates of endocytosis at a central synapse. Nature. 2002;417:555–9.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Nakagawa A, Matsuzaki C, Matsumura E, Koyanagi T, Katayama T, Yamamoto K, et al. (R,S)-tetrahydropapaveroline production by stepwise fermentation using engineered Escherichia coli. Sci Rep. 2014;4:6695.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Kumacheva E, Garstecki P. Microfluidic Reactors for Polymer Particles. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2011.
An edited book
1. Greiner A. Public Debt, Sustainability and Economic Growth: Theory and Empirics. Fincke B, editor. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Schmitz-Valckenberg S, Fleckenstein M, Spaide R, Holz FG. Autofluorescence Imaging. In: Holz FG, Spaide R, editors. Medical Retina: Focus on Retinal Imaging. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2010. p. 41–50.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Patient - Patient-Centered Outcomes Research.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. The Science Behind The Nepal Earthquake [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/environment/science-behind-nepal-earthquake/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Questions for the Record Related to Amtrak’s Food and Beverage Service. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2005 Jul. Report No.: GAO-05-893R.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Munoz S. Mental Health Care for Foreign Born Latinos: A Grant Proposal [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Robertson C, Walsh MW. Debt Crisis? Bankruptcy Fears? See Jefferson County, Ala. New York Times. 2011 Jul 30;A13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Patient - Patient-Centered Outcomes Research
AbbreviationPatient
ISSN (print)1178-1653
ISSN (online)1178-1661
Scope

Other styles