How to format your references using the The Patient - Patient-Centered Outcomes Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Patient - Patient-Centered Outcomes Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. DeWeerdt S. Bacteriology: a caring culture. Nature. 2013;504:S4-5.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Smethurst DP, Williams HC. Power laws. Are hospital waiting lists self-regulating? Nature. 2001;410:652–3.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Puntes VF, Krishnan KM, Alivisatos AP. Colloidal nanocrystal shape and size control: the case of cobalt. Science. 2001;291:2115–7.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Petersen TH, Calle EA, Zhao L, Lee EJ, Gui L, Raredon MB, et al. Tissue-engineered lungs for in vivo implantation. Science. 2010;329:538–41.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Hill R, Solt G. Engineering Money. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2010.
An edited book
1. Eiselt HA. Operations Research: A Model-Based Approach. 2nd ed. 2013. Sandblom C-L, editor. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
1. D’Alessio S. Investigating Inclusive Practice in the Schools of Adriazzurra. In: D’Alessio S, editor. Inclusive Education in Italy: A Critical Analysis of the Policy of Integrazione Scolastica. Rotterdam: SensePublishers; 2011. p. 83–106.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Patient - Patient-Centered Outcomes Research.

Blog post
1. Andrew D. King Coal Is Dethroned In The US – And That’s Good News For The Environment [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Tax Systems Modernization: Private Sector Modernization Efforts IRS May Want to Examine. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1991 Sep. Report No.: GGD-91-133FS.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Pathak A. The Role of the Protein Phosphatase 1 Inhibitor-1 In Regulation of Murine Cardiac Physiology and Progression of Cardiomyopathy [Doctoral dissertation]. [Cincinnati, OH]: University of Cincinnati; 2006.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Walsh MW. Audit Finds Errors in Calculating Pensions in Bankruptcies. New York Times. 2011 Nov 17;B2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Patient - Patient-Centered Outcomes Research
ISSN (print)1178-1653
ISSN (online)1178-1661

Other styles