How to format your references using the The Patient - Patient-Centered Outcomes Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Patient - Patient-Centered Outcomes Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Shastri N. Cell biology. Peptides, scrambled and stitched. Science. 2006;313:1398–9.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Scharlemann JPW, Laurance WF. Environmental science. How green are biofuels? Science. 2008;319:43–4.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Park GD, Ko YN, Kang YC. Electrochemical properties of cobalt hydroxychloride microspheres as a new anode material for Li-ion batteries. Sci Rep. 2014;4:5785.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Blount JD, Metcalfe NB, Birkhead TR, Surai PF. Carotenoid modulation of immune function and sexual attractiveness in zebra finches. Science. 2003;300:125–7.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Sheriff RE, Hu YF. Mobile Satellite Communication Networks. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2001.
An edited book
1. Poesio M, Stuckardt R, Versley Y, editors. Anaphora Resolution: Algorithms, Resources, and Applications. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Mucherino A, Papajorgji PJ, Pardalos PM. k-Nearest Neighbor Classification. In: Papajorgji PJ, Pardalos PM, editors. Data Mining in Agriculture. New York, NY: Springer; 2009. p. 83–106.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Patient - Patient-Centered Outcomes Research.

Blog post
1. Hale T. 4000-Year-Old Funeral Garden Unearthed In Egypt. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2017.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Public Safety Communications: Preliminary Information on FirstNet’s Efforts to Establish a Nationwide Broadband Network. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2015 Mar. Report No.: GAO-15-380T.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Ott WH. An Analysis of the Coordinated Implementation of Digitally-Aided Close Air Support: An Integrated Systems Engineering and Test & Evaluation Approach [Doctoral dissertation]. [Washington, DC]: George Washington University; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Benanav M. A Way of Life, Fading Away. New York Times. 2017 Aug 28;TR8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Patient - Patient-Centered Outcomes Research
AbbreviationPatient
ISSN (print)1178-1653
ISSN (online)1178-1661
Scope

Other styles