How to format your references using the Journal of Hearing Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Hearing Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Edler J. Research funding. Toward variable funding for international science. Science, 2012; 338(6105): 331–2.
A journal article with 2 authors
Fei Y, Bertka C. Planetary science. The interior of Mars. Science, 2005; 308(5725): 1120–1.
A journal article with 3 authors
Blundy J, Cashman K, Humphreys M. Magma heating by decompression-driven crystallization beneath andesite volcanoes. Nature, 2006; 443(7107): 76–80.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Son DH, Hughes SM, Yin Y, Paul Alivisatos A. Cation exchange reactions in ionic nanocrystals. Science, 2004; 306(5698): 1009–12.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Strome TL. Healthcare Analytics for Quality and Performance Improvement. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2013.
An edited book
Moulaert T, Garon S, editors. Age-Friendly Cities and Communities in International Comparison: Political Lessons, Scientific Avenues, and Democratic Issues. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Miura N, Sakurai T, Kuroda T. Inductive Coupled Communications. In: Ho R, Drost R, editors. Coupled Data Communication Techniques for High-Performance and Low-Power Computing. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2010. p. 79–125.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Hearing Science.

Blog post
Fang J. Rare “Blond” Penguin Spotted in Antarctica [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s First-Year Implementation of the Federal Manager’s Financial Integrity Act. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1984 May. Report No.: NSIAD-84-100.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Zatolokin A. Stylistic approaches for oboists in the operatic works of J. Hasse [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wines M, Fernandez M. Stricter Rules Over Voter IDs Reshape Races. New York Times, 2016 May 2; A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Hearing Science
ISSN (print)2083-389X
ISSN (online)2084-3127

Other styles