How to format your references using the Journal of Theoretical and Applied Physics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Theoretical and Applied Physics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Moore, P.: Amplifying the signal. Nature. 435, 236 (2005)
A journal article with 2 authors
Hoorn, C., Flantua, S.: Geology. An early start for the Panama land bridge. Science. 348, 186–187 (2015)
A journal article with 3 authors
Reddien, P.W., Cameron, S., Horvitz, H.R.: Phagocytosis promotes programmed cell death in C. elegans. Nature. 412, 198–202 (2001)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Rebeiz, M., Pool, J.E., Kassner, V.A., Aquadro, C.F., Carroll, S.B.: Stepwise modification of a modular enhancer underlies adaptation in a Drosophila population. Science. 326, 1663–1667 (2009)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cox, I., Gaudard, M.A., Stephens, M.L.: Visual Six Sigma, Second Edition. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ (2016)
An edited book
Haensel, P., Potekhin, A.Y., Yakovlev, D.G. eds: Neutron Stars 1. Springer, New York, NY (2007)
A chapter in an edited book
Saviotti, P.P., Pyka, A.: Generalized Barriers to Entry and Economic Development. In: Pyka, A. and Derengowski Fonseca, M. da G. (eds.) Catching Up, Spillovers and Innovation Networks in a Schumpeterian Perspective. pp. 59–80. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2011)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Theoretical and Applied Physics.

Blog post
Andrew, E.: There’s A “Blue Moon” This Friday - But What Does That Mean?


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Next Generation Air Transportation System: FAA Faces Challenges in Responding to Task Force Recommendations. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (2009)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Renteria, Y.: Respite services for post-adoption families transitioning from the child welfare system: A grant proposal, (2017)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Yablonsky, L.: “Caligula” Gives a Toga Party (But No One’s Really Invited), (2006)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Theoretical and Applied Physics
AbbreviationJ. Theor. Appl. Phys.
ISSN (print)1735-9325
ISSN (online)2251-7235
ScopePhysics and Astronomy (miscellaneous)

Other styles