How to format your references using the Journal of Theoretical and Applied Physics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Theoretical and Applied Physics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Fuks, F.: Journal club. A cancer biologist marvels at how key gene regulators are still revealing hidden talents. Nature. 466, 417 (2010)
A journal article with 2 authors
Van de Walle, C.G., Neugebauer, J.: Universal alignment of hydrogen levels in semiconductors, insulators and solutions. Nature. 423, 626–628 (2003)
A journal article with 3 authors
Cherry, J.L., Adler, F.R., Johnson, K.P.: Islands, equilibria, and speciation. Science. 296, 975 (2002)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Yoshie, T., Scherer, A., Hendrickson, J., Khitrova, G., Gibbs, H.M., Rupper, G., Ell, C., Shchekin, O.B., Deppe, D.G.: Vacuum Rabi splitting with a single quantum dot in a photonic crystal nanocavity. Nature. 432, 200–203 (2004)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bernheim, M.L.C.: Ciba Foundation Symposium 39 - Monoamine Oxidase and its Inhibition: Ciba/Monoamine. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., Chichester, UK (2008)
An edited book
Ischebeck, F.: Ideals and Reality: Projective Modules and Number of Generators of Ideals. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2005)
A chapter in an edited book
Daugstad, K.: The Participatory Dimension in Nature Conservation Processes: Examples of Ideology and Practice from Norway. In: Jones, M. and Stenseke, M. (eds.) The European Landscape Convention: Challenges of Participation. pp. 67–79. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht (2011)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Theoretical and Applied Physics.

Blog post
Andrew, E.: Artificial Whiskers Could Inspire Future Instruments To Aid Keyhole Surgery,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Earth Observing System: Cost and Research Issues. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1996)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Large, K.G.: A study of Statewide Transfer and Articulation Reporting System (STARS) approved courses completed at an Alabama community college, (2008)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G.: A 96-Team Tournament? Now That’s Madness, (2010)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Theoretical and Applied Physics
AbbreviationJ. Theor. Appl. Phys.
ISSN (print)1735-9325
ISSN (online)2251-7235
ScopePhysics and Astronomy (miscellaneous)

Other styles