How to format your references using the Journal of Glaucoma citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Glaucoma. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bourzac K. Collaborations: Mining the motherlodes. Nature. 2015;527(7576):S8-9.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kristensen P, Bjerkedal T. Explaining the relation between birth order and intelligence. Science. 2007;316(5832):1717.
A journal article with 3 authors
Oye KA, Lawson JCH, Bubela T. Drugs: Regulate “home-brew” opiates. Nature. 2015;521(7552):281-283.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Polacek N, Gaynor M, Yassin A, Mankin AS. Ribosomal peptidyl transferase can withstand mutations at the putative catalytic nucleotide. Nature. 2001;411(6836):498-501.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Mitra A. Fundamentals of Quality Control and Improvement. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2008.
An edited book
Peinke J, Schaumann P, Barth S, eds. Wind Energy: Proceedings of the Euromech Colloquium. Springer; 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
Harpe P, Hegt H, van Roermund A. Design of a Sub-Binary Variable-Radix DAC. In: Hegt H, Harpe P, eds. Smart AD and DA Conversion. Springer Netherlands; 2010:41-55.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Glaucoma.

Blog post
Hale T. This Man Lived Without His Heart For Over A Year. IFLScience. Published June 8, 2016. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Critical Infrastructure Protection: Significant Challenges in Protecting Federal Systems and Developing Analysis and Warning Capabilities. U.S. Government Printing Office; 2001.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Waugh DL. From Forgotten to Remembered: The Long Process of School Desegregation in Chapel Hill, North Carolina and Prince Edward County, Virginia. Doctoral dissertation. University of North Carolina; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kenigsberg B. By the Time It Gets Dark. New York Times. April 13, 2017:C8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Glaucoma
AbbreviationJ. Glaucoma
ISSN (print)1057-0829
ISSN (online)1536-481X

Other styles