How to format your references using the Frontiers in Chemistry citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Chemistry. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kolber, Z. S. (2006). Ecology. Getting a better picture of the ocean’s nitrogen budget. Science 312, 1479–1480.
A journal article with 2 authors
Zhu, H., and Owen, M. R. (2013). Damped propagation of cell polarization explains distinct PCP phenotypes of epithelial patterning. Sci. Rep. 3, 2528.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lestas, I., Vinnicombe, G., and Paulsson, J. (2010). Fundamental limits on the suppression of molecular fluctuations. Nature 467, 174–178.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Winther-Jensen, B., Winther-Jensen, O., Forsyth, M., and Macfarlane, D. R. (2008). High rates of oxygen reduction over a vapor phase-polymerized PEDOT electrode. Science 321, 671–674.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Studer, Q. (2007). Results that Last. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Fahy, G. M., West, M. D., Coles, L. S., and Harris, S. B. eds. (2010). The Future of Aging: Pathways to Human Life Extension. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Argyris, N., Figueira, J. R., and Morton, A. (2011). “Interactive Multicriteria Methods in Portfolio Decision Analysis,” in Portfolio Decision Analysis: Improved Methods for Resource Allocation International Series in Operations Research & Management Science., eds. A. Salo, J. Keisler, and A. Morton (New York, NY: Springer), 107–130.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Chemistry.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014). Scientists Investigate The Mechanisms Behind The Floating Arm Trick. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1991). Tax System Modernization: An Assessment of IRS’ Design Master Plan. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Shimizu, K. (2013). The Procurement System of the Japanese Space Agency: Present Challenges, Future Promise.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner, J. (2016). Rookie Succeeds With Two Motivations: Playoff Race and His Student Loans. New York Times, D2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kolber, 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Kolber, 2006; Zhu and Owen, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Zhu and Owen, 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Winther-Jensen et al., 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Chemistry
AbbreviationFront. Chem.
ISSN (online)2296-2646
ScopeGeneral Chemistry

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