How to format your references using the Frontiers in Chemistry citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Chemistry. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Johns, A. (2001). The birth of scientific reading. Nature 409, 287.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gaudioso, J., and Salerno, R. M. (2004). Science and government. Biosecurity and research: minimizing adverse impacts. Science 304, 687.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kwak, K., Cho, K., and Kim, S. (2013). Stable bending performance of flexible organic light-emitting diodes using IZO anodes. Sci. Rep. 3, 2787.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Tzoneva, G., Dieck, C. L., Oshima, K., Ambesi-Impiombato, A., Sánchez-Martín, M., Madubata, C. J., et al. (2018). Clonal evolution mechanisms in NT5C2 mutant-relapsed acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. Nature 553, 511–514.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Joseph, C. (2013). Advanced Credit Risk Analysis and Management. Oxford, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Clarke, D., Noble, J., and Wrigstad, T. eds. (2013). Aliasing in Object-Oriented Programming. Types, Analysis and Verification. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
German, J. (2009). “Lead Time, Customers, and Technology: Technology Opportunities and Limits on the Rate of Deployment,” in Reducing Climate Impacts in the Transportation Sector, eds. J. S. Cannon and D. Sperling (Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands), 73–100.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Chemistry.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014). Common Anti-Anxiety Drug Awakens Patient From Minimally Conscious State. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1976). Federal Short Takeoff and Landing Transport Programs: Status and Needs. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
San, K. A. (2017). Synthesis of Alkanethiolate-Capped Metal Nanoparticles Using Alkyl Thiosulfate Ligand Precursors for Selective Catalytic Reactions.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, K. (2017). Another Goldman Executive Joins Administration. New York Times, A11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Johns, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Gaudioso and Salerno, 2004; Johns, 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Gaudioso and Salerno, 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Tzoneva et al., 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Chemistry
AbbreviationFront. Chem.
ISSN (online)2296-2646
ScopeGeneral Chemistry

Other styles