How to format your references using the Frontiers in Chemistry citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Chemistry. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Rietbrock, A. (2007). Geophysics. Listening to the crackle of subducting oceanic plates. Science 316, 1439–1440.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ahmed, S., and Hodgkin, J. (2000). MRT-2 checkpoint protein is required for germline immortality and telomere replication in C. elegans. Nature 403, 159–164.
A journal article with 3 authors
Schoemaker, H. E., Mink, D., and Wubbolts, M. G. (2003). Dispelling the myths--biocatalysis in industrial synthesis. Science 299, 1694–1697.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Gao, C., Lin, Q., Zhang, S., He, J., Lu, X., and Wang, G. (2014). Historical trends of atmospheric black carbon on Sanjiang Plain as reconstructed from a 150-year peat record. Sci. Rep. 4, 5723.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Adhikari, S. K. (2005). Variational Principles and the Numerical Solution of Scattering Problems. Weinheim, FRG: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Corrigan, K. P., and Mearns, A. eds. (2016). Creating and Digitizing Language Corpora: Volume 3: Databases for Public Engagement. London: Palgrave Macmillan UK.
A chapter in an edited book
Shah, V. P., and Williams, R. L. (2014). “Importance of In Vitro Drug Release,” in Topical Drug Bioavailability, Bioequivalence, and Penetration, eds. V. P. Shah, H. I. Maibach, and J. Jenner (New York, NY: Springer), 61–67.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Chemistry.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014). First weather map created for brown dwarf only 6 light years away. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2011). Aviation Security: TSA Has Made Progress, but Additional Efforts Are Needed to Improve Security. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Theisen, T. D. (2008). Improving the collaboration infrastructure of an online inter -institutional consortium.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley, B. (2016). A Father and a Family, Dissolving Into Darkness. New York Times, C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Rietbrock, 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Ahmed and Hodgkin, 2000; Rietbrock, 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ahmed and Hodgkin, 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Gao et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Chemistry
AbbreviationFront. Chem.
ISSN (online)2296-2646
ScopeGeneral Chemistry

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