How to format your references using the Biomarkers and Genomic Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Biomarkers and Genomic Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Misumi K. Biogeochemistry: Iron’s voyage from the abyss. Nature. 2015;523(7559):160-161.
A journal article with 2 authors
Feehley T, Nagler CR. Health: The weighty costs of non-caloric sweeteners. Nature. 2014;514(7521):176-177.
A journal article with 3 authors
Brown CD, Johnson DS, Sidow A. Functional architecture and evolution of transcriptional elements that drive gene coexpression. Science. 2007;317(5844):1557-1560.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Dvorin JD, Martyn DC, Patel SD, et al. A plant-like kinase in Plasmodium falciparum regulates parasite egress from erythrocytes. Science. 2010;328(5980):910-912.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Morris A. A Practical Guide to Reliable Finite Element Modelling. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2008.
An edited book
Zagalo N, Branco P, eds. Creativity in the Digital Age. Springer; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Chela-Flores J. Fluid Mechanics and Systems Biology for Understanding the Cosmic Distribution of Life: A Review. In: Sigalotti LDG, Klapp J, Sira E, eds. Computational and Experimental Fluid Mechanics with Applications to Physics, Engineering and the Environment. Environmental Science and Engineering. Springer International Publishing; 2014:107-120.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Biomarkers and Genomic Medicine.

Blog post
Taub B. Blood Biomarkers Help Unravel The Mystery Of Gulf War Illness. IFLScience. Published July 12, 2016. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Information Technology: OMB’s Dashboard Has Increased Transparency and Oversight, but Improvements Needed. U.S. Government Printing Office; 2010.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kotch S. Unduly harsh and unworkably rigid: The death penalty in North Carolina, 1910–1961. Published online 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gelles D, Kelly K, Abrams R, Corkery M. Walmart Chief Joins C.E.O. Protests. New York Times. August 15, 2017:A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleBiomarkers and Genomic Medicine
ISSN (print)2214-0247
ScopeGeneral Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology
Biomedical Engineering
General Medicine
Drug Discovery

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