How to format your references using the Biomarkers and Genomic Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Biomarkers and Genomic Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
McCabe H. Galileo set for suicide flight. Nature. 2000;406(6791):8.
A journal article with 2 authors
Farmer CG, Sanders K. Unidirectional airflow in the lungs of alligators. Science. 2010;327(5963):338-340.
A journal article with 3 authors
Keller KE, Tan IS, Lee Y-S. SAICAR stimulates pyruvate kinase isoform M2 and promotes cancer cell survival in glucose-limited conditions. Science. 2012;338(6110):1069-1072.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Stanley S, Elkins-Tanton L, Zuber MT, Parmentier EM. Mars’ paleomagnetic field as the result of a single-hemisphere dynamo. Science. 2008;321(5897):1822-1825.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Klugman SA, Panjer HH, Willmot GE. Loss Models: Further Topics. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2013.
An edited book
Salyapongse AN, Poore SO, Afifi AM, Bentz ML, eds. Extremity Replantation: A Comprehensive Clinical Guide. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Quarteroni A, Saleri F, Gervasio P. Linear systems. In: Saleri F, Gervasio P, eds. Scientific Computing with MATLAB and Octave. Texts in Computational Science and Engineering. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2010:129-179.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Biomarkers and Genomic Medicine.

Blog post
Andrew E. We’re Hiring In Our London Office. IFLScience. Published March 19, 2017. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Hurricanes Katrina and Rita: Provision of Charitable Assistance. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2005.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sponsel H. Was sagte dieser Schiller (damals)? Schillers Antworten auf seine Kritiker nach 1945. 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Widdicombe B. Humming Along With the Dead. New York Times. June 24, 2017:ST1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleBiomarkers and Genomic Medicine
ISSN (print)2214-0247
ScopeGeneral Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology
Biomedical Engineering
General Medicine
Drug Discovery

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