How to format your references using the Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Friedlander, M. (2012). Physics: A century of cosmic rays. Nature, 483(7390), 400–401.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wes, P. D., & Bargmann, C. I. (2001). C. elegans odour discrimination requires asymmetric diversity in olfactory neurons. Nature, 410(6829), 698–701.
A journal article with 3 authors
Pertsinidis, A., Zhang, Y., & Chu, S. (2010). Subnanometre single-molecule localization, registration and distance measurements. Nature, 466(7306), 647–651.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Reilly, D. J., Taylor, J. M., Petta, J. R., Marcus, C. M., Hanson, M. P., & Gossard, A. C. (2008). Suppressing spin qubit dephasing by nuclear state preparation. Science (New York, N.Y.), 321(5890), 817–821.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Quinlan, J., & VanderBrug, J. (2016). Gender Lens Investing. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Thakur, M. K., & Rattan, S. I. S. (Eds.). (2012). Brain Aging and Therapeutic Interventions. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Horak, F. (2010). Antiallergic and Vasoactive Drugs for Allergic Rhinitis. In R. Pawankar, S. T. Holgate, & L. J. Rosenwasser (Eds.), Allergy Frontiers: Therapy and Prevention (pp. 51–61). Tokyo: Springer Japan.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, October 30). Not Everything Gives You Cancer, But Eating Too Much Processed Meat Certainly Can. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2013). Transportation Security: TSA Could Strengthen Monitoring of Allegations of Employee Misconduct (No. GAO-13-624). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mahan, C. P. (2010). First to the finish line: A case study of first generation baccalaureate degree completers in the University of Maryland Student Support Services program (Doctoral dissertation). University of Maryland, College Park, College Park, MD.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Williams, J. (2016, November 28). This is Glam Rock. New York Times, p. BR48.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Friedlander, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Friedlander, 2012; Wes & Bargmann, 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Wes & Bargmann, 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Reilly et al., 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Geophysical Research: Oceans
AbbreviationJ. Geophys. Res. Oceans
ISSN (print)2169-9275
ISSN (online)2169-9291

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