How to format your references using the Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Beard C (2002) Paleontology. East of Eden at the Paleocene/Eocene boundary. Science 295:2028–2029
A journal article with 2 authors
Evans EA, Calderwood DA (2007) Forces and bond dynamics in cell adhesion. Science 316:1148–1153
A journal article with 3 authors
Frank MJ, Seeberger LC, O’reilly RC (2004) By carrot or by stick: cognitive reinforcement learning in parkinsonism. Science 306:1940–1943
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Pedneault E, Galand PE, Potvin M, et al (2014) Archaeal amoA and ureC genes and their transcriptional activity in the Arctic Ocean. Sci Rep 4:4661

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gable J, Herrmann T (2016) Counselling Skills for Dietitians. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Taha S (2013) Secure IP Mobility Management for VANET. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Lenaerts T, Defaweux A (2009) Solving Hierarchically Decomposable Problems with the Evolutionary Transition Algorithm. In: Chiong R, Dhakal S (eds) Natural Intelligence for Scheduling, Planning and Packing Problems. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 111–143

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery.

Blog post
Luntz S (2014) SeaWorld CEO Resigns As Profits Tank After Animal Rights Backlash. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1997) Medicaid: Graduate Medical Education Payments. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Nolan SA (2010) Ecopoetry and ecocentrism: The poetics of Wallace Stevens and William Carlos Williams. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly C (2008) Over the Years, It Feels Right at Home. New York Times LI4

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Beard 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Beard 2002; Evans and Calderwood 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Evans and Calderwood 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Pedneault et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleData Mining and Knowledge Discovery
AbbreviationData Min. Knowl. Discov.
ISSN (print)1384-5810
ISSN (online)1573-756X
ScopeComputer Networks and Communications
Computer Science Applications
Information Systems

Other styles