How to format your references using the Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Newman SA (2012) Physico-genetic determinants in the evolution of development. Science 338:217–219
A journal article with 2 authors
Neilsen J, Lee JC (2009) Accretion disk winds as the jet suppression mechanism in the microquasar GRS 1915+105. Nature 458:481–484
A journal article with 3 authors
Snyder SA, Gollner A, Chiriac MI (2011) Regioselective reactions for programmable resveratrol oligomer synthesis. Nature 474:461–466
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Blasco R, Finlayson C, Rosell J, et al (2014) The earliest pigeon fanciers. Sci Rep 4:5971

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bennett MK (1995) Affine and Projective Geometry. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Pawankar R, Holgate ST, Rosenwasser LJ (eds) (2010) Allergy Frontiers: Therapy and Prevention. Springer Japan, Tokyo
A chapter in an edited book
Rothenbühler I (2006) Cultural aspects of vocational rehabilitation processes. In: Franchignoni F (ed) Vocational Rehabilitation. Springer, Paris, pp 53–67

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery.

Blog post
Andrew E (2014) Could You Be Related To Genghis Khan? In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1997) School Finance: State Efforts to Reduce Funding Gaps Between Poor and Wealthy Districts. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Haigh CV (2017) More Than Skin Deep: The Impact of Self-Esteem, Desire for Lighter Skin, and Gender on the Mental Health of University Students in Thailand. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Williams J (2017) Opening Up About a Closed World. New York Times C6

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Newman 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Neilsen and Lee 2009; Newman 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Neilsen and Lee 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Blasco et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleData Mining and Knowledge Discovery
AbbreviationData Min. Knowl. Discov.
ISSN (print)1384-5810
ISSN (online)1573-756X
ScopeComputer Networks and Communications
Computer Science Applications
Information Systems

Other styles