How to format your references using the Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Murray-Rust P (2008) Chemistry for everyone. Nature 451:648–651
A journal article with 2 authors
Snaith HA, Sawin KE (2003) Fission yeast mod5p regulates polarized growth through anchoring of tea1p at cell tips. Nature 423:647–651
A journal article with 3 authors
Ito T, Woloszyn M, Mazloff M (2010) Anthropogenic carbon dioxide transport in the Southern Ocean driven by Ekman flow. Nature 463:80–83
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Doron-Mor I I, Hatzor A, Vaskevich A, et al (2000) Controlled surface charging as a depth-profiling probe for mesoscopic layers. Nature 406:382–385

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Teodorescu P, Stănescu N-D, Pandrea N (2013) Numerical Analysis with Applications in Mechanics and Engineering. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Bartocci C, Betti R, Guerraggio A, Lucchetti R (eds) (2011) Mathematical Lives: Protagonists of the Twentieth Century From Hilbert to Wiles. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Knoth C, Schlichtmann U, Li B, et al (2012) Methods of Parameter Variations. In: Dietrich M, Haase J (eds) Process Variations and Probabilistic Integrated Circuit Design. Springer, New York, NY, pp 91–179

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery.

Blog post
Andrew E (2013) Why Study Evolution? In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1991) Aviation Safety: Changes Needed in FAA’s Service Difficulty Reporting Program. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Prendergast CA (2017) Nontraditional online students perceptions on student success conditions. Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
(nyt) SK (2002) World Briefing | Europe: Russia: Archbishop Appeals To Rights Groups. New York Times A9

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Murray-Rust 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Snaith and Sawin 2003; Murray-Rust 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Snaith and Sawin 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Doron-Mor et al. 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleData Mining and Knowledge Discovery
AbbreviationData Min. Knowl. Discov.
ISSN (print)1384-5810
ISSN (online)1573-756X
ScopeComputer Networks and Communications
Computer Science Applications
Information Systems

Other styles