How to format your references using the Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Eggleston AK (2009) RNA silencing. Nature 457:395
A journal article with 2 authors
Harris IS, Brugge JS (2015) Cancer: The enemy of my enemy is my friend. Nature 527:170–171
A journal article with 3 authors
Krüger M, Schenk M, Hommelhoff P (2011) Attosecond control of electrons emitted from a nanoscale metal tip. Nature 475:78–81
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Czechowicz A, Kraft D, Weissman IL, Bhattacharya D (2007) Efficient transplantation via antibody-based clearance of hematopoietic stem cell niches. Science 318:1296–1299

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wilson M (2013) Everyday Moral Economies. John Wiley & Sons, Oxford
An edited book
Brabazon A, O’Neill M (eds) (2008) Natural Computing in Computational Finance, X. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Balsamo S, Rossi G-LD, Marin A (2013) Modelling Retrial-Upon-Conflict Systems with Product-Form Stochastic Petri Nets. In: Dudin A, Turck KD (eds) Analytical and Stochastic Modeling Techniques and Applications: 20th International Conference, ASMTA 2013, Ghent, Belgium, July 8-10, 2013. Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 52–66

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery.

Blog post
Andrew D (2016) First Working Eggs Made From Stem Cells Points To Fertility Breakthrough. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2011) Higher Education: Use of New Data Could Help Improve Oversight of Distance Education. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bhandari S (2017) The Role of System of Systems in Additive Manufacturing. Doctoral dissertation, Mississippi State University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
O’connor J (2016) Biking Through Badlands. New York Times TR1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Eggleston 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Eggleston 2009; Harris and Brugge 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Harris and Brugge 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Czechowicz et al. 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleData Mining and Knowledge Discovery
AbbreviationData Min. Knowl. Discov.
ISSN (print)1384-5810
ISSN (online)1573-756X
ScopeComputer Networks and Communications
Computer Science Applications
Information Systems

Other styles