How to format your references using the Procedia Materials Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Procedia Materials Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
K.J.K. Gandhi, The best decision I ever made, Science. 350 (2015) 1122.
A journal article with 2 authors
J.F. Atkins, R.F. Gesteland, mRNA readout at 40, Nature. 414 (2001) 693.
A journal article with 3 authors
Y. Gao, G. Chen, R.H.M. Chan, Naming game on networks: let everyone be both speaker and hearer, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 6149.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
C. Peng, R.J. Gathagan, D.J. Covell, C. Medellin, A. Stieber, J.L. Robinson, B. Zhang, R.M. Pitkin, M.F. Olufemi, K.C. Luk, J.Q. Trojanowski, V.M.-Y. Lee, Cellular milieu imparts distinct pathological α-synuclein strains in α-synucleinopathies, Nature. 557 (2018) 558–563.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
E. Zauderer, Partial Differential Equations of Applied Mathematics, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2006.
An edited book
T.L. Hughes, Identifying, Assessing, and Treating Conduct Disorder at School, Springer US, Boston, MA, 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
C.M. Coleman, C.S. Gelais, L. Wu, Cellular and Viral Mechanisms of HIV-1 Transmission Mediated by Dendritic Cells, in: L. Wu, O. Schwartz (Eds.), HIV Interactions with Dendritic Cells: Infection and Immunity, Springer, New York, NY, 2013: pp. 109–130.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Procedia Materials Science.

Blog post
J. Davis, Blue Whale Spotted Tangled In Fishing Line Off Southern Californian Coast, IFLScience. (2015).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, GAO ADP Data Lines: Issue No. 2, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1983.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
S. Stevens, Aboard and Beyond, Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M. Pilon, High-Fives, Not High Reps, New York Times. (2014) B12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleProcedia Materials Science
ISSN (print)2211-8128

Other styles