How to format your references using the Procedia Materials Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Procedia Materials Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
M. Kaeberlein, Lessons on longevity from budding yeast, Nature. 464 (2010) 513–519.
A journal article with 2 authors
F.E. DeMeo, B. Carry, Solar System evolution from compositional mapping of the asteroid belt, Nature. 505 (2014) 629–634.
A journal article with 3 authors
A. Buckling, M.A. Wills, N. Colegrave, Adaptation limits diversification of experimental bacterial populations, Science. 302 (2003) 2107–2109.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Y. Mao, S. Wen, Y. Chen, F. Zhang, P. Panine, T.W. Chan, L. Zhang, Y. Liang, L. Liu, High performance graphene oxide based rubber composites, Sci. Rep. 3 (2013) 2508.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
D. Vaughan, N. Robinson, N. Lucas, S. Arulkumaran, Handbook of Obstetric High Dependency Care, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK, 2010.
An edited book
W. Dubitzky, J. Southgate, H. Fuß, eds., Understanding the Dynamics of Biological Systems: Lessons Learned from Integrative Systems Biology, Springer, New York, NY, 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
K. Allan, The Pragmeme of Insult and Some Allopracts, in: K. Allan, A. Capone, I. Kecskes (Eds.), Pragmemes and Theories of Language Use, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2016: pp. 69–84.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Procedia Materials Science.

Blog post
J. Davis, Soccer Players May Be At Risk Of Dementia From Repeatedly Heading The Ball, IFLScience. (2017). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Students with Disabilities: Better Federal Coordination Could Lessen Challenges in the Transition from High School, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2012.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
T.D. Chalmers, The social context of advertising: Authenticity, social identity, and reflected appraisals, Doctoral dissertation, University of Arizona, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
L. Cook, P.R. Olsen, It Started at the Gas Pump, New York Times. (2009) BU9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleProcedia Materials Science
ISSN (print)2211-8128

Other styles