How to format your references using the Procedia Materials Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Procedia Materials Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
M.S. Smith, Change the approach to sustainable development, Nature. 483 (2012) 375.
A journal article with 2 authors
G. Amico, M.A. Aizen, Mistletoe seed dispersal by a marsupial, Nature. 408 (2000) 929–930.
A journal article with 3 authors
I. Melendez, K. Grice, L. Schwark, Exceptional preservation of Palaeozoic steroids in a diagenetic continuum, Sci. Rep. 3 (2013) 2768.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
G.W. Holtgrieve, D.E. Schindler, W.O. Hobbs, P.R. Leavitt, E.J. Ward, L. Bunting, G. Chen, B.P. Finney, I. Gregory-Eaves, S. Holmgren, M.J. Lisac, P.J. Lisi, K. Nydick, L.A. Rogers, J.E. Saros, D.T. Selbie, M.D. Shapley, P.B. Walsh, A.P. Wolfe, A coherent signature of anthropogenic nitrogen deposition to remote watersheds of the Northern Hemisphere, Science. 334 (2011) 1545–1548.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
W. Zhang, X. Chou, T. Shi, Z. Ma, H. Bao, J. Chen, L. Chen, D. Li, C. Xue, Measurement Technology for Micro-Nanometer Devices, John Wiley & Sons Singapore Pte. Ltd, Singapore, 2016.
An edited book
S.Y. Nof, ed., Springer Handbook of Automation, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
R. Guo, G. Zhao, Boundaries, Territorial Disputes, and Water Insecurity: Evidence from the Lower Mekong Basin, in: R. Guo, C. Freeman (Eds.), Managing Fragile Regions: Method and Application, Springer, New York, NY, 2011: pp. 81–103.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Procedia Materials Science.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Of Course Space Exploration Is Worth The Money, IFLScience. (2015). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, VA Information Technology: Management Making Important Progress in Addressing Key Challenges, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2002.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
G.M. Ilag, An examination of the entity participants’ collaborative partnerships within the United Nations Global Compact, Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
B. Mueller, W.K. Rashbaum, Before Times Sq. Crash, A String of Legal Issues And a Fall Into Paranoia, New York Times. (2017) A21.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleProcedia Materials Science
ISSN (print)2211-8128

Other styles