How to format your references using the Journal of Geophysical Research: Earth Surface citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Geophysical Research: Earth Surface. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kittinger, J. N. J. (2014). A giant leap. Science (New York, N.Y.), 345(6192), 110.
A journal article with 2 authors
Anderson, V. J., & Lekkerkerker, H. N. W. (2002). Insights into phase transition kinetics from colloid science. Nature, 416(6883), 811–815.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bruner, S. D., Norman, D. P., & Verdine, G. L. (2000). Structural basis for recognition and repair of the endogenous mutagen 8-oxoguanine in DNA. Nature, 403(6772), 859–866.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Murakami, M., Hirose, K., Yurimoto, H., Nakashima, S., & Takafuji, N. (2002). Water in Earth’s lower mantle. Science (New York, N.Y.), 295(5561), 1885–1887.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bell, S. (2005). Lean Enterprise Systems. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Beyn, W.-J. (2014). Current Challenges in Stability Issues for Numerical Differential Equations: Cetraro, Italy 2011, Editors: Luca Dieci, Nicola Guglielmi. (L. Dieci, N. Guglielmi, E. Hairer, J. M. Sanz-Serna, & M. Zennaro, Eds.) (Vol. 2082). Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
El-Sonbaty, Y., Youssef, S. M., & Fathalla, K. M. (2011). Enhanced Fuzzy-Based Models for ROI Extraction in Medical Images. In T.-H. Kim, H. Adeli, C. Ramos, & B.-H. Kang (Eds.), Signal Processing, Image Processing and Pattern Recognition: International Conference, SIP 2011, Held as Part of the Future Generation Information Technology Conference FGIT 2011, in Conjunction with GDC 2011, Jeju Island, Korea, December 8-10, 2011. Proceedings (pp. 26–35). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Geophysical Research: Earth Surface.

Blog post
Hale, T. (2015, November 4). Catastrophic Antelope Death Rates Are Higher And More Mysterious Than Previously Thought. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2017). DOD Major Automated Information Systems: Improvements Can Be Made in Applying Leading Practices for Managing Risk and Testing (No. GAO-17-322). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Olsen, S. L. (2017). A Year of Sin An Experiential Exhibition of Sin (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Branch, J. (2017, October 9). Thinking About the Future in a Place Where Lives Ended. New York Times, p. A15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kittinger, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Anderson & Lekkerkerker, 2002; Kittinger, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Anderson & Lekkerkerker, 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Murakami et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Geophysical Research: Earth Surface
AbbreviationJ. Geophys. Res. Earth Surf.
ISSN (print)2169-9003
ISSN (online)2169-9011

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