How to format your references using the Journal of Geophysical Research: Earth Surface citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Geophysical Research: Earth Surface. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Russo, G. (2007). Bioscience in the sun. Nature, 446(7139), 1112–1113.
A journal article with 2 authors
Dalton, R., & Cyranoski, D. (2000). Baja peninsula claims five victims in tragic accident. Nature, 404(6778), 533.
A journal article with 3 authors
Risk, J. M., Macknight, R. C., & Day, C. L. (2008). FCA does not bind abscisic acid. Nature, 456(7223), E5-6.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Enard, W., Przeworski, M., Fisher, S. E., Lai, C. S. L., Wiebe, V., Kitano, T., et al. (2002). Molecular evolution of FOXP2, a gene involved in speech and language. Nature, 418(6900), 869–872.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Heuer, A. (2012). Der perfekte Tipp. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Conneely, O., & Otto, C. (Eds.). (2008). Progestins and the Mammary Gland: From Basic Science to Clinical Applications (Vol. 2007/1). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Duggan, J. (2007). Using System Dynamics and Multiple Objective Optimization to Support Policy Analysis for Complex Systems. In H. Qudrat-Ullah, J. M. Spector, & P. I. Davidsen (Eds.), Complex Decision Making: Theory and Practice (pp. 59–81). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Geophysical Research: Earth Surface.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, May 8). Messenger Spacecraft Detects Ancient Magnetic Field On Mercury. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1979). Evaluation and the Research Process (No. 110668). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Cooper, T. (2009). Biting Animals (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gustines, G. G. (2012, March 15). Exhibition Recalls Slam-Bang World Of Pulp Magazines. New York Times, p. F38.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Russo, 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Dalton & Cyranoski, 2000; Russo, 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Dalton & Cyranoski, 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Enard et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Geophysical Research: Earth Surface
AbbreviationJ. Geophys. Res. Earth Surf.
ISSN (print)2169-9003
ISSN (online)2169-9011

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