How to format your references using the Brain Sciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Brain Sciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Mackas, D.L. Does Blending of Chlorophyll Data Bias Temporal Trend? Nature 2011, 472, E4-5; discussion E8-9.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lahn, B.T.; Ebenstein, L. Let’s Celebrate Human Genetic Diversity. Nature 2009, 461, 726–728.
A journal article with 3 authors
Moseley, R.L.; Pulvermüller, F.; Shtyrov, Y. Sensorimotor Semantics on the Spot: Brain Activity Dissociates between Conceptual Categories within 150 Ms. Sci. Rep. 2013, 3, 1928.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Bittar, F.; Keita, M.B.; Lagier, J.-C.; Peeters, M.; Delaporte, E.; Raoult, D. Gorilla Gorilla Gorilla Gut: A Potential Reservoir of Pathogenic Bacteria as Revealed Using Culturomics and Molecular Tools. Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 7174.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Matthews, G.G. Cellular Physiology of Nerve and Muscle; Blackwell Publishing Ltd.: Malden, MA USA, 2002; ISBN 9781118687864.
An edited book
Managing Cancer during Pregnancy; Azim, H.A., Jr, Ed.; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2016; ISBN 9783319287980.
A chapter in an edited book
Sammet, K.; Bergelt, D. The Modernisation of Gender Relations and Religion: Comparative Analysis of Secularization Processes. In Transformations of Religiosity: Religion and Religiosity in Eastern Europe 1989 – 2010; Pickel, G., Sammet, K., Eds.; VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften: Wiesbaden, 2012; pp. 51–68 ISBN 9783531175409.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Brain Sciences.

Blog post
Andrew, E. Can Americans Have Both Environmental Preservation And Expanded Oil Drilling? (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Applying Agreed-Upon Procedures: Highway Trust Fund Excise Taxes; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2001;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kim, B.G. Mercury-Containing Species and Carbon Dioxide Adsorption Studies on Inorganic Compounds Using Density Functional Theory. Doctoral dissertation, University of Arizona: Tucson, AZ, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard, M. Sky’s the Limit: Yogis Head Outdoors. New York Times 2011, MB1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBrain Sciences
AbbreviationBrain Sci.
ISSN (online)2076-3425

Other styles