How to format your references using the Brain Sciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Brain Sciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Reich, P.B. Elevated CO2 reduces losses of plant diversity caused by nitrogen deposition. Science 2009, 326, 1399–1402.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kang, D.-Y.; Moon, J.H. Lithographically defined three-dimensional pore-patterned carbon with nitrogen doping for high-performance ultrathin supercapacitor applications. Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 5392.
A journal article with 3 authors
Jiang, D.; Zhao, L.; Clapham, D.E. Genome-wide RNAi screen identifies Letm1 as a mitochondrial Ca2+/H+ antiporter. Science 2009, 326, 144–147.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Bzhalava, D.; Mühr, L.S.A.; Lagheden, C.; Ekström, J.; Forslund, O.; Dillner, J.; Hultin, E. Deep sequencing extends the diversity of human papillomaviruses in human skin. Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 5807.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rogers, E.F., Jr Aquinas and the Supreme Court; John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Chichester, UK, 2013; ISBN 9781118397305.
An edited book
Imaging of Bone Tumors and Tumor-Like Lesions: Techniques and Applications; Davies, A.M., Sundaram, M., James, S.L.J., Eds.; Medical Radiology; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2009; ISBN 9783540779827.
A chapter in an edited book
Grosse-Wentrup, M.; Schölkopf, B. A Review of Performance Variations in SMR-Based Brain−Computer Interfaces (BCIs). In Brain-Computer Interface Research: A State-of-the-Art Summary; Guger, C., Allison, B.Z., Edlinger, G., Eds.; SpringerBriefs in Electrical and Computer Engineering; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2013; pp. 39–51 ISBN 9783642360824.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Brain Sciences.

Blog post
Taub, B. A New Species Of Massive Prehistoric Shark Has Been Discovered Available online: (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Metropolitan Area Acquisition (MAA) Implementation Issues; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2001;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Beyer, P.D. Authentic Leadership in-extremis: A study of combat leadership. Doctoral dissertation, Capella University: Minneapolis, MN, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Fuller, T.; Wines, M. Some States Take Politics Out of District Maps (No Supreme Court Required). New York Times 2017, A16.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBrain Sciences
AbbreviationBrain Sci.
ISSN (online)2076-3425

Other styles