How to format your references using the Brain Sciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Brain Sciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Rummel, J.D. Survival on the edge: the tube worm’s strategy. Nature 2000, 407, 671.
A journal article with 2 authors
Chen, I.W.; Wang, X.H. Sintering dense nanocrystalline ceramics without final-stage grain growth. Nature 2000, 404, 168–171.
A journal article with 3 authors
Morais-Cabral, J.H.; Zhou, Y.; MacKinnon, R. Energetic optimization of ion conduction rate by the K+ selectivity filter. Nature 2001, 414, 37–42.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Sanayama, Y.; Matsumoto, A.; Shimojo, N.; Kohno, Y.; Nakaya, H. Phenylalanine sensitive K562-D cells for the analysis of the biochemical impact of excess amino acid. Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 6941.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kitajima, M. Memory and Action Selection in Human-Machine Interaction; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2016; ISBN 9781119268628.
An edited book
Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation in Children with Cancer; Smith, F.O., Reaman, G.H., Racadio, J.M., Eds.; Pediatric Oncology; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2014; ISBN 9783642399190.
A chapter in an edited book
Brock, M. Physiology and Metabolic Requirements of Pathogenic Fungi. In Human and Animal Relationships; Brakhage, A.A., Zipfel, P.F., Eds.; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2008; pp. 63–82 ISBN 9783540793069.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Brain Sciences.

Blog post
Andrew, E. Take College And University Courses Online Completely Free (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Bureau of Indian Affairs’ Progress in Providing Special Education Services to Indian Children; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1979;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mayberry, D.S. Total Relaxation Center, LLC. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach: Long Beach, CA, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wells, L. My Life in Pictures. New York Times 2005, 656.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBrain Sciences
AbbreviationBrain Sci.
ISSN (online)2076-3425

Other styles