How to format your references using the Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Krull, W. (2002). A fresh start for European science. Nature, 419(6904), 249–250.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hinde, K., & Lewis, Z. T. (2015). MICROBIOTA. Mother’s littlest helpers. Science (New York, N.Y.), 348(6242), 1427–1428.
A journal article with 3 authors
Nielsen, H., Westhof, E., & Johansen, S. (2005). An mRNA is capped by a 2’, 5’ lariat catalyzed by a group I-like ribozyme. Science (New York, N.Y.), 309(5740), 1584–1587.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Mitra, S., Mukherjee, N., Das, S., Das, P., Panda, C. K., & Chakrabarti, J. (2014). Anomalous altered expressions of downstream gene-targets in TP53-miRNA pathways in head and neck cancer. Scientific Reports, 4, 6280.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Poltorak, A. I., & Lerner, P. J. (2011). Essentials of Intellectual Property. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Lourenço, J. M., & Farchi, E. (Eds.). (2013). Multicore Software Engineering, Performance, and Tools: International Conference, MUSEPAT 2013, St. Petersburg, Russia, August 19-20, 2013. Proceedings (Vol. 8063). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Göktay, A. Y., & MacLennan, G. T. (2013). Vascular Disorders of the Kidney. In V. S. Dogra & G. T. MacLennan (Eds.), Genitourinary Radiology: Kidney, Bladder and Urethra: The Pathologic Basis (pp. 145–183). London: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences.

Blog post
Davis, J. (2015, June 10). Researchers Create A Computer That Works Using Water. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2000). Chief Information Officers: Implementing Effective CIO Organizations (No. T-AIMD-00-128). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kyereboah, R. (2015). Criteria For Appointing Board Members to Corporate Boards in Ghana (Doctoral dissertation). University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley, B. (2016, December 7). Banality and Trouble? They’re Neighbors. New York Times, p. C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Krull, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Hinde & Lewis, 2015; Krull, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hinde & Lewis, 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Mitra et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences
AbbreviationJ. Geophys. Res. Biogeosci.
ISSN (print)2169-8953
ISSN (online)2169-8961

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