How to format your references using the Journal of Geophysical Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Geophysical Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Peng, X. (2011). China’s demographic history and future challenges. Science (New York, N.Y.), 333(6042), 581–587.
A journal article with 2 authors
Scharlemann, J. P. W., & Laurance, W. F. (2008). Environmental science. How green are biofuels? Science (New York, N.Y.), 319(5859), 43–44.
A journal article with 3 authors
Boguski, M. S., Mandl, K. D., & Sukhatme, V. P. (2009). Drug discovery. Repurposing with a difference. Science (New York, N.Y.), 324(5933), 1394–1395.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Nejentsev, S., Walker, N., Riches, D., Egholm, M., & Todd, J. A. (2009). Rare variants of IFIH1, a gene implicated in antiviral responses, protect against type 1 diabetes. Science (New York, N.Y.), 324(5925), 387–389.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Henriksen, R. N. (2015). Scale Invariance. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Pawankar, R., Holgate, S. T., & Rosenwasser, L. J. (Eds.). (2010). Allergy Frontiers: Therapy and Prevention (Vol. 5). Tokyo: Springer Japan.
A chapter in an edited book
Kool, V. K., & Agrawal, R. (2016). Behavior in the Virtual Environment. In R. Agrawal (Ed.), Psychology of Technology (pp. 187–251). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Geophysical Research.

Blog post
Luntz, S. (2015, May 4). Flaws Prove Wonder Material Can Get Even Better. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1998). Federal Research: Information on the Advanced Technology Program’s 1997 Award Selection (No. T-RCED-98-92). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gallardo-Macias, R. (2009). Tin (II) compounds as novel catalysts for the Kabachnik-Fields reaction: Studies in the synthesis of alpha-aminophosphonates under solvent free conditions and Synthesis of phosphonates and phosphates as reversible and irreversible inhibitors of butyrylcholinesterase (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
SOPHIA OKUN TRACY; Sophia Okun Tracy lives in New Rochelle. (1987, July 12). TATTERED REMINDERS OF WORDS TO INSPIRE A CHILD. New York Times, p. 11WC28.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Peng, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Peng, 2011; Scharlemann & Laurance, 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Scharlemann & Laurance, 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Nejentsev et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Geophysical Research
AbbreviationJ. Geophys. Res.
ISSN (print)0148-0227
ISSN (online)2156-2202
ScopeAquatic Science
Soil Science
Earth and Planetary Sciences (miscellaneous)
Atmospheric Science
Earth-Surface Processes
Geochemistry and Petrology
Space and Planetary Science
Water Science and Technology

Other styles