How to format your references using the Journal of Geophysical Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Geophysical Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wesnousky, S. G. (2006). Predicting the endpoints of earthquake ruptures. Nature, 444(7117), 358–360.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gray, N., & Chouard, T. (2009). Neurotechniques. Nature, 461(7266), 899.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hull, P. M., Darroch, S. A. F., & Erwin, D. H. (2015). Rarity in mass extinctions and the future of ecosystems. Nature, 528(7582), 345–351.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Qi, C., Zhang, H., Liu, L., Yang, R., Yang, Y., Kang, T., et al. (2014). Analysis of interactions between SNARE proteins using imaging ellipsometer coupled with microfluidic array. Scientific Reports, 4, 5341.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Chen, Z. N., & Chia, M. Y. W. (2006). Broadband Planar Antennas. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
McLysaght, A., & Huson, D. H. (Eds.). (2005). Comparative Genomics: RECOMB 2005 International Workshop, RCG 2005, Dublin, Ireland, September 18-20, 2005. Proceedings (Vol. 3678). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Stadtmüller, S., Cardoso, J., & Junghans, M. (2015). Service Semantics. In J. Cardoso, H. Fromm, S. Nickel, G. Satzger, R. Studer, & C. Weinhardt (Eds.), Fundamentals of Service Systems (pp. 137–178). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Geophysical Research.

Blog post
Luntz, S. (2014, August 6). Surfing Seal Will Make Your Day. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2004). Highway Projects--Extent of Unobligated Balances for Demonstration Projects as of April 30, 2004 (No. GAO-04-935R). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Anderson, P. M. (2012). Persistent Genomic Consequences of Prenatal Nicotine Exposure Measured in Adolescent Rat Brain (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Barron, J. (2017, September 10). Celebrating a Honey Harvest in the Center of Hudson Yards. New York Times, p. A17.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Wesnousky, 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Gray & Chouard, 2009; Wesnousky, 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Gray & Chouard, 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Qi et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Geophysical Research
AbbreviationJ. Geophys. Res.
ISSN (print)0148-0227
ISSN (online)2156-2202
ScopeAquatic Science
Soil Science
Earth and Planetary Sciences (miscellaneous)
Atmospheric Science
Earth-Surface Processes
Geochemistry and Petrology
Space and Planetary Science
Water Science and Technology

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