How to format your references using the Journal of Geophysical Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Geophysical Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Alexander, R. M. (2003). Evolution. Enhanced: A rodent as big as a buffalo. Science (New York, N.Y.), 301(5640), 1678–1679.
A journal article with 2 authors
Schwab, M. E., & Buchli, A. D. (2012). Drug research: plug the real brain drain. Nature, 483(7389), 267–268.
A journal article with 3 authors
Prytkova, T. R., Kurnikov, I. V., & Beratan, D. N. (2007). Coupling coherence distinguishes structure sensitivity in protein electron transfer. Science (New York, N.Y.), 315(5812), 622–625.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Chow, E., Lin, S. Y., Johnson, S. G., Villeneuve, P. R., Joannopoulos, J. D., Wendt, J. R., et al. (2000). Three-dimensional control of light in a two-dimensional photonic crystal slab. Nature, 407(6807), 983–986.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cooke, R. (2005). The History of Mathematics. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Schmerr, L. W. (2007). Ultrasonic Nondestructive Evaluation Systems: Models and Measurements. (S.-J. Song, Ed.). Boston, MA: Springer US.
A chapter in an edited book
Samad, F., Badeanlou, L., Shah, C., & Yang, G. (2011). Adipose Tissue and Ceramide Biosynthesis in the Pathogenesis of Obesity. In L. A. Cowart (Ed.), Sphingolipids and Metabolic Disease (pp. 67–86). New York, NY: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Geophysical Research.

Blog post
Carpineti, C. (2017, May 17). Incredible Footage Shows A Baby Being Born Via A “Natural C-Section.” Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2004). Information Technology: Major Federal Networks That Support Homeland Security Functions (No. GAO-04-375). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ramos, J. (2017). Surviving Childhood Bullying: Impact on Psychosocial Well-Being in Adulthood (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Zucchino, D., & Solomon, B. C. (2017, February 16). Newly Freed From ISIS but Stuck Without Water, Neighbors Find a Way. New York Times, p. A4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Alexander, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Alexander, 2003; Schwab & Buchli, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Schwab & Buchli, 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Chow et al., 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Geophysical Research
AbbreviationJ. Geophys. Res.
ISSN (print)0148-0227
ISSN (online)2156-2202
ScopeAquatic Science
Soil Science
Earth and Planetary Sciences (miscellaneous)
Atmospheric Science
Earth-Surface Processes
Geochemistry and Petrology
Space and Planetary Science
Water Science and Technology

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