How to format your references using the Journal of Baltic Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Baltic Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Harte, John. 2008. “An Ecologist Notes That Important Details Are Missing from Climate-Change Models.” Nature 454 (7208): 1033.
A journal article with 2 authors
Milczarek, Grzegorz, and Olle Inganäs. 2012. “Renewable Cathode Materials from Biopolymer/Conjugated Polymer Interpenetrating Networks.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 335 (6075): 1468–1471.
A journal article with 3 authors
Noskov, Sergei Yu, Simon Bernèche, and Benoît Roux. 2004. “Control of Ion Selectivity in Potassium Channels by Electrostatic and Dynamic Properties of Carbonyl Ligands.” Nature 431 (7010): 830–834.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Li, Hongtao, Hao Xu, Yan Zhou, Jie Zhang, Chengzu Long, Shuqin Li, She Chen, Jian-Min Zhou, and Feng Shao. 2007. “The Phosphothreonine Lyase Activity of a Bacterial Type III Effector Family.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 315 (5814): 1000–1003.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Anderson, Rosaleen J., Paul W. Groundwater, Adam Todd, and Alan J. Worsley. 2012. Antibacterial Agents. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Zenker, Sebastian, and Björn P. Jacobsen, eds. 2015. Inter-Regional Place Branding: Best Practices, Challenges and Solutions. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Baru, Chaitanya, Milind Bhandarkar, Carlo Curino, Manuel Danisch, Michael Frank, Bhaskar Gowda, Hans-Arno Jacobsen, et al. 2015. “Discussion of BigBench: A Proposed Industry Standard Performance Benchmark for Big Data.” In Performance Characterization and Benchmarking. Traditional to Big Data: 6th TPC Technology Conference, TPCTC 2014, Hangzhou, China, September 1--5, 2014. Revised Selected Papers, edited by Raghunath Nambiar and Meikel Poess, 44–63. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Baltic Studies.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2015. “Transylvanian Music Festival Offers Ticket Discount For Blood.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2006. Joint Strike Fighter: DOD Plans to Enter Production before Testing Demonstrates Acceptable Performance. GAO-06-356. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Corbets, Jeffrey B. 2017. “Evaluating System Architecture Quality and Architecting Team Performance Using Information Quality Theory.” Doctoral dissertation, Washington, DC: George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, Linda. 2006. “Arizona’s Strict Approach to Insanity Defenses Gets a Hearing Before the Supreme Court.” New York Times, April 20.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Harte 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Harte 2008; Milczarek and Inganäs 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Milczarek and Inganäs 2012)
  • Three authors: (Noskov, Bernèche, and Roux 2004)
  • 4 or more authors: (Li et al. 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Baltic Studies
AbbreviationJ. Balt. Stud.
ISSN (print)0162-9778
ISSN (online)1751-7877
ScopeArts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
Cultural Studies

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