How to format your references using the Journal of Baltic Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Baltic Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
zur Hausen, Harald. 2011. “Science Addict.” Nature 478 (7368): S12.
A journal article with 2 authors
Coulson, Tim, and Sonya Clegg. 2014. “Population Biology: Fur Seals Signal Their Own Decline.” Nature 511 (7510): 414–415.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zikherman, Julie, Ramya Parameswaran, and Arthur Weiss. 2012. “Endogenous Antigen Tunes the Responsiveness of Naive B Cells but Not T Cells.” Nature 489 (7414): 160–164.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Shevchenko, Elena V., Dmitri V. Talapin, Nicholas A. Kotov, Stephen O’Brien, and Christopher B. Murray. 2006. “Structural Diversity in Binary Nanoparticle Superlattices.” Nature 439 (7072): 55–59.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Donald, Ian W. 2010. Waste Immobilization in Glass and Ceramic Based Hosts. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Fermüller, Christian G., and Andrei Voronkov, eds. 2010. Logic for Programming, Artificial Intelligence, and Reasoning: 17th International Conference, LPAR-17, Yogyakarta, Indonesia, October 10-15, 2010. Proceedings. Vol. 6397. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Jankowski, Pawel P., Richard A. O’Brien, G. Bryan Cornwall, and William R. Taylor. 2014. “Intraoperative Neurophysiology Monitoring.” In Minimally Invasive Spine Surgery: Surgical Techniques and Disease Management, edited by Frank Phillips, Isador Lieberman, and David Polly, 43–53. New York, NY: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Baltic Studies.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2015. “Is Your Sleep App Keeping You Up At Night?” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2014. Child Welfare: Federal Agencies Can Better Support State Efforts to Prevent and Respond to Sexual Abuse by School Personnel. GAO-14-42. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ballard, Kelsey J. 2012. “Frequent Factors for Psychiatric Hospital Readmission.” Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow, Kelly. 2000. “Veggies vs. a Courthouse: Worries and Reassurance.” New York Times, September 10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (zur Hausen 2011).
This sentence cites two references (zur Hausen 2011; Coulson and Clegg 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Coulson and Clegg 2014)
  • Three authors: (Zikherman, Parameswaran, and Weiss 2012)
  • 4 or more authors: (Shevchenko et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Baltic Studies
AbbreviationJ. Balt. Stud.
ISSN (print)0162-9778
ISSN (online)1751-7877
ScopeArts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
Cultural Studies

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