How to format your references using the Journal of Baltic Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Baltic Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kreeger, Karen. 2003. “The Learning Curve.” Nature 424 (6945): 234–235.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hamanaka, Robert B., and Navdeep S. Chandel. 2011. “Cell Biology. Warburg Effect and Redox Balance.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 334 (6060): 1219–1220.
A journal article with 3 authors
Rideout, W. M., 3rd, K. Eggan, and R. Jaenisch. 2001. “Nuclear Cloning and Epigenetic Reprogramming of the Genome.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 293 (5532): 1093–1098.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Baker, Joel, Martin Bizzarro, Nadine Wittig, James Connelly, and Henning Haack. 2005. “Early Planetesimal Melting from an Age of 4.5662 Gyr for Differentiated Meteorites.” Nature 436 (7054): 1127–1131.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ergül, Özgür, and Levent Gürel. 2014. The Multilevel Fast Multipole Algorithm (MLFMA) for Solving Large-Scale Computational Electromagnetics Problems. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Chetty, Madhu, Alioune Ngom, and Shandar Ahmad, eds. 2008. Pattern Recognition in Bioinformatics: Third IAPR International Conference, PRIB 2008, Melbourne, Australia, October 15-17, 2008. Proceedings. Vol. 5265. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Dürr, Detlef, and Stefan Teufel. 2009. “Chance.” In Bohmian Mechanics: The Physics and Mathematics of Quantum Theory, edited by Detlef Dürr, 49–107. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Baltic Studies.

Blog post
Hamilton, Kristy. 2015. “Velvet Worm Slimes Prey In Wild Spray Attack.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1988. Urban Mass Transportation Administration’s Enforcement of Buy America Provisions of the Surface Transportation Assistance Act. T-RCED-88-33. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gurska, Daniel Paul. 2017. “Peering Down the Bottomless Well: Myth in Thomas Mann’s Joseph Tetralogy.” Doctoral dissertation, Carpinteria, CA: Pacifica Graduate Institute.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
(nyt), Sophia Kishkovsky. 2003. “World Briefing | Europe: Russia: Israeli Rabbi Visits.” New York Times, September 10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kreeger 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Kreeger 2003; Hamanaka and Chandel 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hamanaka and Chandel 2011)
  • Three authors: (Rideout, Eggan, and Jaenisch 2001)
  • 4 or more authors: (Baker et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Baltic Studies
AbbreviationJ. Balt. Stud.
ISSN (print)0162-9778
ISSN (online)1751-7877
ScopeArts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
Cultural Studies

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