How to format your references using the Journal of Baltic Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Baltic Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Steeg, Patricia S. 2012. “Perspective: The Right Trials.” Nature 485 (7400): S58-9.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wood, Bernard J., and Alex N. Halliday. 2005. “Cooling of the Earth and Core Formation after the Giant Impact.” Nature 437 (7063): 1345–1348.
A journal article with 3 authors
Creed, Meaghan, Vincent Jean Pascoli, and Christian Lüscher. 2015. “Addiction Therapy. Refining Deep Brain Stimulation to Emulate Optogenetic Treatment of Synaptic Pathology.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 347 (6222): 659–664.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Azoulay, Pierre, Joshua Graff-Zivin, Brian Uzzi, Dashun Wang, Heidi Williams, James A. Evans, Ginger Zhe Jin, et al. 2018. “Toward a More Scientific Science.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 361 (6408): 1194–1197.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hillis, David R., and J. Barry Duvall. 2012. Improving Profitability through Green Manufacturing. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Wei, Ran, ed. 2016. Mobile Media, Political Participation, and Civic Activism in Asia: Private Chat to Public Communication. Mobile Communication in Asia: Local Insights, Global Implications. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Schultz, David, and Craig Cook. 2007. “Adding Content.” In Beginning HTML with CSS and XHTML: Modern Guide and Reference, edited by Craig Cook, 51–103. Berkeley, CA: Apress.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Baltic Studies.

Blog post
Evans, Katy. 2017. “NASA Confirms Emergency Spacewalk After Key Equipment Failure On The ISS.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1978. Survey of the Harrison County Head Start Program, Gulfport, Mississippi. HRD-78-82. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Anemaet, Wendy K. 2008. “The Effects of Non -Surgical Interventions on Osteoarthritis-like Changes in the Mouse Knee.” Doctoral dissertation, Tampa, FL: University of South Florida.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gorman, James. 2017. “More Than the Sum of Its Parts.” New York Times, February 13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Juergens 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Kirschner 2008; Beacham 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Wood and Halliday 2005)
  • Three authors: (Creed, Pascoli, and Lüscher 2015)
  • 4 or more authors: (Castellone et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Baltic Studies
AbbreviationJ. Balt. Stud.
ISSN (print)0162-9778
ISSN (online)1751-7877
ScopeArts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
Cultural Studies

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