How to format your references using the Journal of Baltic Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Baltic Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dalton, Rex. 2003. “Arizona Institute Names Leader.” Nature 423 (6935): 6.
A journal article with 2 authors
Grimes, Robin W., and William J. Nuttall. 2010. “Generating the Option of a Two-Stage Nuclear Renaissance.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 329 (5993): 799–803.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lezec, Henri J., Jennifer A. Dionne, and Harry A. Atwater. 2007. “Negative Refraction at Visible Frequencies.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 316 (5823): 430–432.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Möller, P., D. G. Madland, A. J. Sierk, and A. Iwamoto. 2001. “Nuclear Fission Modes and Fragment Mass Asymmetries in a Five-Dimensional Deformation Space.” Nature 409 (6822): 785–790.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gottlieb, Isaac. 2009. Next Generation Excel. 2 Clementi Loop, #02-01, Singapore 129809: John Wiley & Sons (Asia) Pte. Ltd.
An edited book
Tiwari, G. N. 2016. Handbook of Solar Energy: Theory, Analysis and Applications. Edited by Arvind Tiwari and Shyam. Energy Systems in Electrical Engineering. Singapore: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Lutfalla, Emmanuèle, and Michael J. Munkert. 2010. “France.” In Founding a Company: Handbook of Legal Forms in Europe, edited by Michael J. Munkert, Stephan Stubner, and Torsten Wulf, 49–69. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Baltic Studies.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2015. “Scientists Discover Simple Technique That Cuts Calories In Rice By 60%.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1998. Airport Financing: Comparing Funding Sources With Planned Development. T-RCED-98-129. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Magallanes, Jessica. 2014. “Experiences with Formal and Informal Support: A Case Study of a Female-to-Male Transgender Individual.” Doctoral dissertation, Malibu, CA: Pepperdine University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, Linda. 2015. “The Supreme Court and the Politics of Fear.” New York Times, July 4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Dalton 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Dalton 2003; Grimes and Nuttall 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Grimes and Nuttall 2010)
  • Three authors: (Lezec, Dionne, and Atwater 2007)
  • 4 or more authors: (Möller et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Baltic Studies
AbbreviationJ. Balt. Stud.
ISSN (print)0162-9778
ISSN (online)1751-7877
ScopeArts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
Cultural Studies

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