How to format your references using the Journal of Baltic Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Baltic Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Mahaffy, Paul R. 2005. “Intensive Titan Exploration Begins.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 308 (5724): 969–970.
A journal article with 2 authors
Stixrude, Lars, and Donald R. Peacor. 2002. “First-Principles Study of Illite-Smectite and Implications for Clay Mineral Systems.” Nature 420 (6912): 165–168.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wei, Bryan, Mingjie Dai, and Peng Yin. 2012. “Complex Shapes Self-Assembled from Single-Stranded DNA Tiles.” Nature 485 (7400): 623–626.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Wang, Qin, Jiali Zhao, Ashley E. Brady, Jian Feng, Patrick B. Allen, Robert J. Lefkowitz, Paul Greengard, and Lee E. Limbird. 2004. “Spinophilin Blocks Arrestin Actions in Vitro and in Vivo at G Protein-Coupled Receptors.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 304 (5679): 1940–1944.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Pierce, David R. 2013. Project Scheduling and Management for Construction. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Zentes, Joachim. 2012. Strategic Retail Management: Text and International Cases. Edited by Dirk Morschett and Hanna Schramm-Klein. 2nd ed. Wiesbaden: Gabler Verlag.
A chapter in an edited book
Ray, Tushar. 2016. “Calcium Controls the P2-ATPase Mediated Homeostasis: Essential Role of NaAF.” In Regulation of Membrane Na+-K+ ATPase, edited by Sajal Chakraborti and Naranjan S. Dhalla, 63–75. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Baltic Studies.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, Jonathan. 2016. “‘Heat Bombs’ May Explain Why The Sun’s Outer Atmosphere Is So Hot.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1990. Shared Resources Project: Evaluation Report. 142798. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Baudy, Andreas R. 2010. “Efficacy of Glucocorticoids in Muscular Dystrophy: Signaling, Hormonal Activities, and Muscle Inflammation.” Doctoral dissertation, Washington, DC: George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Oestreich, James R. 2017. “A Japanese Writer’s Reveries Are Voiced in Music.” New York Times, September 15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Mahaffy 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Mahaffy 2005; Stixrude and Peacor 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Stixrude and Peacor 2002)
  • Three authors: (Wei, Dai, and Yin 2012)
  • 4 or more authors: (Wang et al. 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Baltic Studies
AbbreviationJ. Balt. Stud.
ISSN (print)0162-9778
ISSN (online)1751-7877
ScopeArts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
Cultural Studies

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