How to format your references using the Journal of Baltic Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Baltic Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Macilwain, Colin. 2010. “World View: Wild Goose Chase.” Nature 463 (7279): 291.
A journal article with 2 authors
Pitnick, Scott, and David W. Pfennig. 2014. “Evolutionary Biology: Brotherly Love Benefits Females.” Nature 505 (7485): 626–627.
A journal article with 3 authors
Catrysse, Peter B., Victor Liu, and Shanhui Fan. 2014. “Complete Power Concentration into a Single Waveguide in Large-Scale Waveguide Array Lenses.” Scientific Reports 4 (October): 6635.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
van Borkulo, Claudia D., Denny Borsboom, Sacha Epskamp, Tessa F. Blanken, Lynn Boschloo, Robert A. Schoevers, and Lourens J. Waldorp. 2014. “A New Method for Constructing Networks from Binary Data.” Scientific Reports 4 (August): 5918.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Pohanish, Richard P. 2005. HazMat Data. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Brock, Stephen E. 2006. Identifying, Assessing, and Treating Autism at School. Edited by Shane R. Jimerson and Robin L. Hansen. Boston, MA: Springer US.
A chapter in an edited book
Ater, Joann L., Jeffrey S. Weinberg, Moshe H. Maor, and Demetrios Petropoulos. 2005. “Brain Tumors: Chemotherapy and Investigational Therapy.” In Pediatric Oncology, edited by Ka Wah Chan and R. Beverly Raney, 50–69. Boston, MA: Springer US.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Baltic Studies.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2014. “American Ebola Patients Receive New Experimental Treatment.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2010. Intellectual Property: Agencies Progress in Implementing Recent Legislation, but Enhancements Could Improve Future Plans. GAO-11-39. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Guarin, Yeny. 2017. “A Postpartum Support Group for Women Experiencing Postpartum Depression: A Grant Proposal.” Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Marx, Linda. 2015. “A Model Walks Into a Bar ….” New York Times, October 11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Macilwain 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Macilwain 2010; Pitnick and Pfennig 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Pitnick and Pfennig 2014)
  • Three authors: (Catrysse, Liu, and Fan 2014)
  • 4 or more authors: (van Borkulo et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Baltic Studies
AbbreviationJ. Balt. Stud.
ISSN (print)0162-9778
ISSN (online)1751-7877
ScopeArts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
Cultural Studies

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