How to format your references using the Journal of General Internal Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of General Internal Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Marshall E. Nobel century. For winners, a new life of opportunity--and perils. Science. 2001;294(5541):293-295.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Both C, Visser ME. Adjustment to climate change is constrained by arrival date in a long-distance migrant bird. Nature. 2001;411(6835):296-298.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Ahn CH, Triscone J-M, Mannhart J. Electric field effect in correlated oxide systems. Nature. 2003;424(6952):1015-1018.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1.
Gómez-Gutiérrez J, Peterson WT, De Robertis A, Brodeur RD. Mass mortality of krill caused by parasitoid ciliates. Science. 2003;301(5631):339.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Tibergien M, Pomering R. Practice Made (More) Perfect. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2011.
An edited book
1.
Ruan J, Leung CB, eds. Perspectives on Teaching and Learning English Literacy in China. Vol 3. Springer Netherlands; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Merino P, Salmerón A. Combining SPIN with ns-2 for Protocol Optimization. In: Pol J van de, Weber M, eds. Model Checking Software: 17th International SPIN Workshop, Enschede, The Netherlands, September 27-29, 2010. Proceedings. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer; 2010:40-57.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of General Internal Medicine.

Blog post
1.
Andrew D. What Happens To Our Bodies After We Die? IFLScience.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Computer Operations: FAA Needs to Implement an Effective Capacity Management Program. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1991.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Bowmar JS. Building Energy Efficiency and Resilience in the United States, One Disaster at a Time: Fostering Green Building Principles through Disaster Assistance. Published online 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Turkewitz J. Language Barrier Continues to Thwart Victims of Crimes. New York Times. May 12, 2014:A14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of General Internal Medicine
AbbreviationJ. Gen. Intern. Med.
ISSN (print)0884-8734
ISSN (online)1525-1497
ScopeInternal Medicine

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