How to format your references using the Journal of General Internal Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of General Internal Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Levitt P. Neuroscience. Sealing cortical cell fate. Science. 2004;303(5654):48-49.
A journal article with 2 authors
Partridge L, Gems D. A lethal side-effect. Nature. 2002;418(6901):921.
A journal article with 3 authors
McAlary L, Yerbury JJ, Aquilina JA. Glutathionylation potentiates benign superoxide dismutase 1 variants to the toxic forms associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Sci Rep. 2013;3:3275.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Sato S, Iida J, Suzuki K, Kawano M, Ozeki T, Fujita M. Fluorous nanodroplets structurally confined in an organopalladium sphere. Science. 2006;313(5791):1273-1276.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Padgett S. Profiling the Fraudster. John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 2014.
An edited book
Bebis G, Boyle R, Parvin B, et al., eds. Advances in Visual Computing: 9th International Symposium, ISVC 2013, Rethymnon, Crete, Greece, July 29-31, 2013. Proceedings, Part II. Vol 8034. Springer; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Gandhi A. Organisation and Role of Critical Care Units: Obstetric HDU/ICU. In: Gandhi A, Malhotra N, Malhotra J, Gupta N, Bora NM, eds. Principles of Critical Care in Obstetrics: Volume I. Springer India; 2016:21-34.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of General Internal Medicine.

Blog post
Andrew E. First Vine From Space Uploaded By NASA Astronaut. IFLScience. Published June 9, 2014. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. FCC: Geographic Partitioning and Spectrum Disaggregation for the 220-222 MHz Service. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1998.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Konggidinata MI. Application and Modifications of Ordered Mesoporous Carbon (OMC) for BTEX Removal: Characterization, Adsorption Mechanisms, and Kinetic Studies. Doctoral dissertation. University of Louisiana; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly C. You Loved My Film? Thanks, Man. Spare a Dime? New York Times. April 14, 2013:A23B.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of General Internal Medicine
AbbreviationJ. Gen. Intern. Med.
ISSN (print)0884-8734
ISSN (online)1525-1497
ScopeInternal Medicine

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