How to format your references using the Journal of General Internal Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of General Internal Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Rummel JD. Survival on the edge: the tube worm’s strategy. Nature. 2000;407(6805):671.
A journal article with 2 authors
Chen K, Baran PS. Total synthesis of eudesmane terpenes by site-selective C-H oxidations. Nature. 2009;459(7248):824-828.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sagy A, Reches Z, Fineberg J. Dynamic fracture by large extraterrestrial impacts as the origin of shatter cones. Nature. 2002;418(6895):310-313.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Ducut Sigala JL, Bottero V, Young DB, Shevchenko A, Mercurio F, Verma IM. Activation of transcription factor NF-kappaB requires ELKS, an IkappaB kinase regulatory subunit. Science. 2004;304(5679):1963-1967.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Chitty J, Raftery A. Essentials of Tortoise Medicine and Surgery. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2013.
An edited book
Grech L, Lau A, eds. Pharmaceutical Care Issues of Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis: From Hospital to Community. Springer; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Ullah AA, Huque AS. Discrimination, Xenophobia and Stigmatization. In: Huque AS, ed. Asian Immigrants in North America with HIV/AIDS: Stigma, Vulnerabilities and Human Rights. Springer; 2014:81-110.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of General Internal Medicine.

Blog post
Andrew D. Why Do We Keep Seeing Crazy Stuff On Mars? IFLScience. Published September 6, 2015. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Use of Construction Authority by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1971.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Yao D. In situ activity of NAC11-7 roseobacters in coastal waters off the Chesapeake Bay based on ftsZ expression. Published online 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Chen DW, Walsh MW. City’s System for Pensions Shows Strain. New York Times. August 4, 2014:A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of General Internal Medicine
AbbreviationJ. Gen. Intern. Med.
ISSN (print)0884-8734
ISSN (online)1525-1497
ScopeInternal Medicine

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