How to format your references using the Journal of General Internal Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of General Internal Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
DeMello AJ. Control and detection of chemical reactions in microfluidic systems. Nature. 2006;442(7101):394-402.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Yagi M, Oikawa S. Ontogenetic phase shifts in metabolism in a flounder Paralichthys olivaceus. Sci Rep. 2014;4:7135.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Jia S, Noma K-I, Grewal SIS. RNAi-independent heterochromatin nucleation by the stress-activated ATF/CREB family proteins. Science. 2004;304(5679):1971-1976.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1.
Mair GR, Braks JAM, Garver LS, et al. Regulation of sexual development of Plasmodium by translational repression. Science. 2006;313(5787):667-669.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Fayngold M. Special Relativity and Motions Faster than Light. Weinheim, FRG: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2005.
An edited book
1.
Allison PA, Bottjer DJ, eds. Taphonomy: Process and Bias Through Time. Vol 32. 2nd ed. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Bristow T. Affective Edgelands: Wildness, History, and Technology in Britain’s Postindustrial and Postnatural Topographies. In: Tally RT, Battista CM, eds. Ecocriticism and Geocriticism: Overlapping Territories in Environmental and Spatial Literary Studies. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan US; 2016:77-93.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of General Internal Medicine.

Blog post
1.
Hale T. Hurricane Matthew Unearthed These Hidden Civil War Cannonballs In South Carolina. IFLScience.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Cybersecurity: Recent Data Breaches Illustrate Need for Strong Controls across Federal Agencies. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2015.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Sanabria A. Root Metaphor. 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Wagner J. Bullpen Wastes a Sparkling Performance by deGrom. New York Times. April 16, 2017:SP3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of General Internal Medicine
AbbreviationJ. Gen. Intern. Med.
ISSN (print)0884-8734
ISSN (online)1525-1497
ScopeInternal Medicine

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