How to format your references using the Flavour citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Flavour. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Wickware P. Postdocs reject academic research. Nature. 2000;407:429–30.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Arnold K, Zuberbühler K. Language evolution: semantic combinations in primate calls. Nature. 2006;441:303.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Fischle W, Wang Y, Allis CD. Binary switches and modification cassettes in histone biology and beyond. Nature. 2003;425:475–9.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Thompson JD, Zwickl BM, Jayich AM, Marquardt F, Girvin SM, Harris JGE. Strong dispersive coupling of a high-finesse cavity to a micromechanical membrane. Nature. 2008;452:72–5.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Baker HK, English P. Capital Budgeting Valuation. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2011.
An edited book
1. Luo MR, editor. Encyclopedia of Color Science and Technology. New York, NY: Springer; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Génard M, Memmah M-M, Quilot-Turion B, Vercambre G, Baldazzi V, Le Bot J, et al. Process-Based Simulation Models Are Essential Tools for Virtual Profiling and Design of Ideotypes: Example of Fruit and Root. In: Yin X, Struik PC, editors. Crop Systems Biology: Narrowing the gaps between crop modelling and genetics. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. p. 83–104.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Flavour.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Filmmaker Gets Up Close And Personal With Massive Hammerhead Sharks [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Information Technology: Agencies Need to Improve Their Application Inventories to Achieve Additional Savings. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2016 Sep. Report No.: GAO-16-511.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Tzillah A. The emissions of selected air pollutants from biodiesel fuel usage [Doctoral dissertation]. [Cincinnati, OH]: University of Cincinnati; 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Corkery M, Walsh MW. Treasury Considers Plan to Help Puerto Rico. New York Times. 2015 Oct 15;B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleFlavour
ISSN (online)2044-7248

Other styles