How to format your references using the Journal of Gastrointestinal Cancer citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Gastrointestinal Cancer. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Ley RE. The gene-microbe link. Nature. 2015;518:S7.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Schmidt V, Gösele U. Materials science. How nanowires grow. Science. 2007;316:698–9.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Donoso M, Collins AGE, Koechlin E. Human cognition. Foundations of human reasoning in the prefrontal cortex. Science. 2014;344:1481–6.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Canzoneri E, Marzolla M, Amoresano A, Verni G, Serino A. Amputation and prosthesis implantation shape body and peripersonal space representations. Sci Rep. 2013;3:2844.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Lu K. Materials in Energy Conversion, Harvesting, and Storage. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 2014.
An edited book
1. Liu M. Nonlinear Analysis and Prediction of Time Series in Multiphase Reactors. Hu Z, editor. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Stolzenburg J-U, Liatsikos EN, Schwalenberg T, Häfner T, Do M, Orth S, et al. Miscellaneous. In: Stolzenburg J-U, Türk IA, Liatsikos EN, editors. Laparoscopic and Robot-Assisted Surgery in Urology: Atlas of Standard Procedures. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011. p. 363–86.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Gastrointestinal Cancer.

Blog post
1. Carpineti A. Learn How To Manage What Facebook And Twitter Know About You [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2017 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Tax Systems Modernization: IRS Needs to Resolve Certain Issues With Its Integrated Case Processing System. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1997 Jan. Report No.: GGD/AIMD-97-31.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Denz TA. Performance Evaluation of a Magnetically Enhanced Micro-Cathode Vacuum Arc Thruster [Doctoral dissertation]. [Washington, DC]: George Washington University; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Donadio R. Russian Artist to Seek Asylum in France. New York Times. 2017 Jan 17;C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Gastrointestinal Cancer
AbbreviationJ. Gastrointest. Cancer
ISSN (print)1941-6628
ISSN (online)1941-6636

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