How to format your references using the Journal of Gastrointestinal Cancer citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Gastrointestinal Cancer. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Blowes D. Environmental chemistry. Tracking hexavalent Cr in groundwater. Science. 2002;295:2024–5.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Erwin DH, Krakauer DC. Evolution. Insights into innovation. Science. 2004;304:1117–9.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Haerizadeh F, Singh MB, Bhalla PL. Transcriptional repression distinguishes somatic from germ cell lineages in a plant. Science. 2006;313:496–9.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Dean S, Marchetti R, Kirk K, Matthews KR. A surface transporter family conveys the trypanosome differentiation signal. Nature. 2009;459:213–7.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Waye JD, Aisenberg J, Rubin PH. Practical Colonoscopy. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishing Ltd.; 2013.
An edited book
1. Paulino N. Low Power Uwb Cmos Radar Sensors. 1st ed. Garção AS, Goes J, editors. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Ramirez D, Herrero LC, de Pablo S, Martinez F. STATCOM Control Strategies. In: Shahnia F, Rajakaruna S, Ghosh A, editors. Static Compensators (STATCOMs) in Power Systems. Singapore: Springer; 2015. p. 147–86.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Gastrointestinal Cancer.

Blog post
1. Fang J. Plant Defense Hormones Build Healthy Microbiomes for Roots. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Aviation Safety: FAA Needs to Strengthen the Management of Its Designee Programs. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2004 Oct. Report No.: GAO-05-40.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Bartenhagen J. Transitioning organizations for sustainability: Exploring the intersection of sustainability, worldview, and organization development [Doctoral dissertation]. [Malibu, CA]: Pepperdine University; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. St. John Kelly E. Children’s Books. New York Times. 1997 Apr 27;729.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Gastrointestinal Cancer
AbbreviationJ. Gastrointest. Cancer
ISSN (print)1941-6628
ISSN (online)1941-6636

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