How to format your references using the Journal of Gastrointestinal Cancer citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Gastrointestinal Cancer. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Schmidt C. Bioelectronics: The bionic material. Nature. 2012;483:S37.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Russo T, Volterra V. Comment on “children creating core properties of language: evidence from an emerging sign language in Nicaragua.” Science. 2005;309:56; author reply 56.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Dahl CD, Chen C-C, Rasch MJ. Own-race and own-species advantages in face perception: a computational view. Sci Rep. 2014;4:6654.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Toga T, Kuraoka I, Watanabe S, Nakano E, Takeuchi S, Nishigori C, et al. Fluorescence detection of cellular nucleotide excision repair of damaged DNA. Sci Rep. 2014;4:5578.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Zhu Z, Nandi AK. Automatic Modulation Classification. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2014.
An edited book
1. Rai M, Varma A, editors. Diversity and Biotechnology of Ectomycorrhizae. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Martínez-Carrillo AL, Ruiz A, Lucena MJ, Fuertes JM. Computer Tools for Archaeological Reference Collections: The Case of the Ceramics of the Iberian Period from Andalusia (Spain). In: Grana C, Cucchiara R, editors. Multimedia for Cultural Heritage: First International Workshop, MM4CH 2011, Modena, Italy, May 3, 2011, Revised Selected Papers. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012. p. 51–62.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Gastrointestinal Cancer.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Artificial Kidneys Could Be In Patients By 2020 [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Acquisition of Compact and Subcompact Passenger Vehicles To Conserve Fuel. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1976 Mar. Report No.: 089569.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Williams-Newball TI. Domain, Community and Practice: An Empirical Investigation of the Relationship Between Communities of Practice and Professional Identity Among Veterinarians [Doctoral dissertation]. [Washington, DC]: George Washington University; 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Seymour M. How About a Nightcap? New York Times. 2015 Apr 24;BR11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Gastrointestinal Cancer
AbbreviationJ. Gastrointest. Cancer
ISSN (print)1941-6628
ISSN (online)1941-6636

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