How to format your references using the Mediterranean Journal of Infection, Microbes and Antimicrobials citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Mediterranean Journal of Infection, Microbes and Antimicrobials (MJIMA). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Savage N. Mobile data: Made to measure. Nature. 2015;527:S12-3.
A journal article with 2 authors
Iwao C, Shidoji Y. Induction of nuclear translocation of mutant cytoplasmic p53 by geranylgeranoic acid in a human hepatoma cell line. Sci Rep. 2014;4:4419.
A journal article with 3 authors
Jiang H, Stein BE, McHaffie JG. Opposing basal ganglia processes shape midbrain visuomotor activity bilaterally. Nature. 2003;423:982–86.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Woo HA, Chae HZ, Hwang SC, Yang K-S, Kang SW, Kim K, Rhee SG. Reversing the inactivation of peroxiredoxins caused by cysteine sulfinic acid formation. Science. 2003;300:653–56.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Chandru V, Hooker J. Optimization Methods for Logical Inference. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1999.
An edited book
Guang X. Linear Network Error Correction Coding. New York, NY: Springer, 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Maoilearca LCÓ. Since Each of Us Was Several: Collaboration in the Context of the Differential Self. In: Colin N, Sachsenmaier S (eds). Collaboration in Performance Practice: Premises, Workings and Failures. London: Palgrave Macmillan UK, 2016:93–107.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Mediterranean Journal of Infection, Microbes and Antimicrobials.

Blog post
Andrew D. 3 States Just Voted To Make Marijuana Completely Legal — Here’s What It Does To Your Body And Brain [Internet]. IFLScience. 2016.Last accessed date: 2018 Oct 30. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Pell Grants: How the Department of Education Estimates Program Costs. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1990.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Rice HJ. Before the Storm: Evacuation Intention and Audience Segmentation. (thesis). University of South Florida; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Oestreich JR. Aiding and Abetting Operatic Dabblers. New York Times. 2017;:C6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1,2,3,4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMediterranean Journal of Infection, Microbes and Antimicrobials
ISSN (online)2147-673X

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