How to format your references using the Journal of Gastrointestinal and Liver Diseases citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Gastrointestinal and Liver Diseases. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bohannon J. The Gonzo Scientist. Results from the science dance match-up challenge. Science. 2009 Jun 5;324(5932):1262.
A journal article with 2 authors
Enright MC, Spratt BG. Genomics. The genomic view of bacterial diversification. Science. 2011 Jan 28;331(6016):407–9.
A journal article with 3 authors
Jiang QX, Wang DN, MacKinnon R. Electron microscopic analysis of KvAP voltage-dependent K+ channels in an open conformation. Nature. 2004 Aug 12;430(7001):806–10.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Ng PC, Murray SS, Levy S, Venter JC. An agenda for personalized medicine. Nature. 2009 Oct 8;461(7265):724–6.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
The American Ceramic Society. Progress in Nanotechnology. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2009.
An edited book
Hacke U, editor. Functional and Ecological Xylem Anatomy. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015. XII, 281 p. 100 illus., 42 illus. in color.
A chapter in an edited book
Li H. Epidemiological Investigation of AIDS. In: Li H, editor. Radiology of HIV/AIDS: A Practical Approach. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2014. p. 25–9.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Gastrointestinal and Liver Diseases.

Blog post
Andrew E. Veritasium Ventures To Some Of The Most Radioactive Places on Earth [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Contracting Out: NASA Not Complying With OMB Circular A-76. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1985 Nov. Report No.: NSIAD-86-15.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mann KM. Evaluation of Transfer Technologies to Preserve Shoulder Function in SCI [Doctoral dissertation]. [Tampa, FL]: University of South Florida; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Lyman R, Walsh MW. Bankrupt City Fighting to Open a Crack in California’s Pension Agency. New York Times. 2014 Apr 21;A11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Gastrointestinal and Liver Diseases
AbbreviationJ. Gastrointestin. Liver Dis.
ISSN (print)1841-8724
ISSN (online)1842-1121

Other styles