How to format your references using the Journal of Gastrointestinal and Liver Diseases citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Gastrointestinal and Liver Diseases. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik P. Back on track? Nature. 2004 Jul 15;430(6997):381.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lowell BB, Shulman GI. Mitochondrial dysfunction and type 2 diabetes. Science. 2005 Jan 21;307(5708):384–7.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bormashenko E, Musin A, Grynyov R. Scaling law governing the roughness of the swash edge line. Sci Rep. 2014 Sep 1;4:6243.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Novikov AP, Kalmykov SN, Utsunomiya S, Ewing RC, Horreard F, Merkulov A, et al. Colloid transport of plutonium in the far-field of the Mayak Production Association, Russia. Science. 2006 Oct 27;314(5799):638–41.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Borisenko VE, Ossicini S. What is What in the Nanoworld. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2012.
An edited book
Heshmati A, Maasoumi E, Wan G, editors. Poverty Reduction Policies and Practices in Developing Asia. Singapore: Springer; 2015. XI, 314 p. 22 illus. (Economic Studies in Inequality, Social Exclusion and Well-Being).
A chapter in an edited book
Blanchard P, Volchenkov D. Exploring Undirected Graphs by Random Walks. In: Volchenkov D, editor. Random Walks and Diffusions on Graphs and Databases: An Introduction. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011. p. 55–72. (Springer Series in Synergetics).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Gastrointestinal and Liver Diseases.

Blog post
Davis J. The Thawing Of Permafrost Could Cause An Additional $43 Trillion Worth Of Economic Damage. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Health Care: Telehealth and Remote Patient Monitoring Use in Medicare and Selected Federal Programs. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2017 Apr. Report No.: GAO-17-365.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Dickens JR. The experience of recovery from alcohol/drugs (AOD) [Doctoral dissertation]. [Minneapolis, MN]: Capella University; 2011.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Baker P. President Assails ‘Joke’ Justice And Seeks Visa Program’s End. New York Times. 2017 Nov 1;A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Gastrointestinal and Liver Diseases
AbbreviationJ. Gastrointestin. Liver Dis.
ISSN (print)1841-8724
ISSN (online)1842-1121

Other styles