How to format your references using the Journal of Gastrointestinal and Liver Diseases citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Gastrointestinal and Liver Diseases. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Grayson M. Introduction: Curiosity aroused. Nature. 2010 Oct 14;467(7317):S2-3.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ho C-H, Chen H-H. Optically decomposed near-band-edge structure and excitonic transitions in Ga₂S₃. Sci Rep. 2014 Aug 21;4:6143.
A journal article with 3 authors
Miller JR, Outlaw RA, Holloway BC. Graphene double-layer capacitor with ac line-filtering performance. Science. 2010 Sep 24;329(5999):1637–9.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Mazmanian SK, Skaar EP, Gaspar AH, Humayun M, Gornicki P, Jelenska J, et al. Passage of heme-iron across the envelope of Staphylococcus aureus. Science. 2003 Feb 7;299(5608):906–9.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Onstott S. AutoCAD® and AutoCAD LT® Essentials. Indianapolis, Indiana: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2017.
An edited book
Hjelle Ø. Triangulations and Applications. Dæhlen M, editor. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2006. XI, 229 p. (Mathematics and Visualization).
A chapter in an edited book
Innocentini-Mei LH, Fakhouri FM. Recent Studies on Soy Protein Based Blends, Composites and Nanocomposites. In: Thomas S, Visakh PM, Mathew AP, editors. Advances in Natural Polymers: Composites and Nanocomposites. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013. p. 155–68. (Advanced Structured Materials).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Gastrointestinal and Liver Diseases.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J. There Might Be Another “Stonehenge” In The Amazon. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Office of Federal Student Aid: Better Strategic and Human Capital Planning Would Help Sustain Management Progress. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2004 Oct. Report No.: GAO-05-31.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hudson N. Undocumented Latino Student Activists’ Funds of Knowledge: Transforming Social Movements [Doctoral dissertation]. [Washington, DC]: George Washington University; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gorman J. In Defense of the Donkey. New York Times. 2016 Oct 31;D1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Gastrointestinal and Liver Diseases
AbbreviationJ. Gastrointestin. Liver Dis.
ISSN (print)1841-8724
ISSN (online)1842-1121

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