How to format your references using the Neurobiology of Stress citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Neurobiology of Stress. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wickware, P., 2000. United States gives priority to skills shortage. Nature 404, 686–687.
A journal article with 2 authors
Maheswaran, S., Haber, D.A., 2015. Cell fate: Transition loses its invasive edge. Nature 527, 452–453.
A journal article with 3 authors
Murthy, V.R., van Westrenen, W., Fei, Y., 2003. Experimental evidence that potassium is a substantial radioactive heat source in planetary cores. Nature 423, 163–165.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Lyeo, H.-K., Khajetoorians, A.A., Shi, L., Pipe, K.P., Ram, R.J., Shakouri, A., Shih, C.K., 2004. Profiling the thermoelectric power of semiconductor junctions with nanometer resolution. Science 303, 816–818.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wilmott, P., Orrell, D., 2017. The Money Formula. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Brun, L., Vento, M. (Eds.), 2005. Graph-Based Representations in Pattern Recognition: 5th IAPR International Workshop, GbRPR 2005, Poitiers, France, April 11-13, 2005. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Chevitarese, D.S., Szwarcman, D., Vellasco, M., 2012. Speeding Up the Training of Neural Networks with CUDA Technology, in: Rutkowski, L., Korytkowski, M., Scherer, R., Tadeusiewicz, R., Zadeh, L.A., Zurada, J.M. (Eds.), Artificial Intelligence and Soft Computing: 11th International Conference, ICAISC 2012, Zakopane, Poland, April 29-May 3, 2012, Proceedings, Part I, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 30–38.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Neurobiology of Stress.

Blog post
Fang, J., 2015. The Heartbeats of Fruit Flies Can Be Regulated Using Light Pulses [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2003. Highway Safety: Research Continues on a Variety of Factors That Contribute to Motor Vehicle Crashes (No. GAO-03-436). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kelly, E.J., 2016. What experiences create and nurture a love of science? (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Somaiya, R., Schaap, R., Mueller, A., Rapkin, M., Spitznagel, E., Samuels, T., Lyall, S., Bennett, R., Mueller, A., Leff, A., Rushfield, R., Aftab, K., Schneider, E., Kelly, J., 2012. Why Are They Always Apologizing? New York Times MM34.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Wickware, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Maheswaran and Haber, 2015; Wickware, 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Maheswaran and Haber, 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Lyeo et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleNeurobiology of Stress
AbbreviationNeurobiol. Stress
ISSN (print)2352-2895
Molecular Biology
Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience
Endocrine and Autonomic Systems

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