How to format your references using the Neurobiology of Stress citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Neurobiology of Stress. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Grätzel, M., 2001. Photoelectrochemical cells. Nature 414, 338–344.
A journal article with 2 authors
Holme, P., Liljeros, F., 2014. Birth and death of links control disease spreading in empirical contact networks. Sci. Rep. 4, 4999.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zenkin, N., Yuzenkova, Y., Severinov, K., 2006. Transcript-assisted transcriptional proofreading. Science 313, 518–520.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Peters, C., Bayer, M.J., Bühler, S., Andersen, J.S., Mann, M., Mayer, A., 2001. Trans-complex formation by proteolipid channels in the terminal phase of membrane fusion. Nature 409, 581–588.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Corsi, P., Dulieu, M., 2013. The Marketing of Technology Intensive Products and Services. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Machado, P., McDermott, J., Carballal, A. (Eds.), 2013. Evolutionary and Biologically Inspired Music, Sound, Art and Design: Second International Conference, EvoMUSART 2013, Vienna, Austria, April 3-5, 2013. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Kreku, J., Tiensyrjä, K., 2012. System Exploration, in: Soudris, D., Jantsch, A. (Eds.), Scalable Multi-Core Architectures: Design Methodologies and Tools. Springer, New York, NY, pp. 107–137.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Neurobiology of Stress.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. Jaw-Bone Discovery Reveals More About Secret Sex Lives Of Neanderthals And Early Humans [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1998. Charter Schools: Use of Start-Up Grant Funds (No. HEHS-98-150R). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lotrecchiano, G.R., 2012. Social Mechanisms of Team Science: A Descriptive Case Study Using a Multilevel Systems Perspective Employing Reciprocating Structuration Theory (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wilson, M., 2017. 47 Years Later, a Murder Victim Defined by Aliases Has a Name. New York Times A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Grätzel, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Grätzel, 2001; Holme and Liljeros, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Holme and Liljeros, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Peters et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleNeurobiology of Stress
AbbreviationNeurobiol. Stress
ISSN (print)2352-2895
Molecular Biology
Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience
Endocrine and Autonomic Systems

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