How to format your references using the Neurobiology of Stress citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Neurobiology of Stress. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Raushel, F.M., 2013. Biochemistry. Not an oxidase, but a peroxidase. Science 342, 943–944.
A journal article with 2 authors
Campbell, N., Grayson, M., 2014. Index 2014 Global. Nature 515, S49.
A journal article with 3 authors
Schubert, G., Russell, C.T., Moore, W.B., 2000. Timing of the Martian dynamo. Nature 408, 666–667.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Croll, D.A., Maron, J.L., Estes, J.A., Danner, E.M., Byrd, G.V., 2005. Introduced predators transform subarctic islands from grassland to tundra. Science 307, 1959–1961.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Smirnov, B.M., 2011. Fundamentals of Ionized Gases. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany.
An edited book
Cherry, M.J. (Ed.), 2009. The Normativity of the Natural: Human Goods, Human Virtues, and Human Flourishing, Philosophical Studies in Contemporary Culture. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
Davis, P.J., Hersh, R., Marchisotto, E.A., 2012. Inner Issues, in: Hersh, R., Marchisotto, E.A. (Eds.), The Mathematical Experience, Study Edition. Birkhäuser, Boston, MA, pp. 137–224.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Neurobiology of Stress.

Blog post
Luntz, S., 2014. Fireball Meteor Filmed Over Tennessee [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1997. Student Financial Aid Information: Systems Architecture Needed to Improve Programs’ Efficiency (No. AIMD-97-122). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Heatlie, J.M., 2015. Effects of Simulation on Senior Nursing Students’ Patient Safety Competence: A Quantitative Study (Doctoral dissertation). Northcentral University, Scottsdale, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rothenberg, B., 2017. Some Chafe at Rules Meant to Protect Youngest Girls. New York Times D2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Raushel, 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Campbell and Grayson, 2014; Raushel, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Campbell and Grayson, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Croll et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleNeurobiology of Stress
AbbreviationNeurobiol. Stress
ISSN (print)2352-2895
Molecular Biology
Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience
Endocrine and Autonomic Systems

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