How to format your references using the Journal of Gastroenterology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Gastroenterology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Pereira IAC. Microbiology. An enzymatic route to H2 storage. Science. 2013;342:1329–30.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Yoo BC, Lubec G. p25 protein in neurodegeneration. Nature. 2001;411:763–4; discussion 764-5.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Nolan D, James I, Mallal S. HIV/AIDS. HIV: experiencing the pressures of modern life. Science. 2005;307:1422–4.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Tavazoie SF, Alarcón C, Oskarsson T, Padua D, Wang Q, Bos PD, et al. Endogenous human microRNAs that suppress breast cancer metastasis. Nature. 2008;451:147–52.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Bittner M. Temporality: Universals and Variation. Oxford, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2014.
An edited book
1. Reiner G, editor. Rapid Modelling for Increasing Competitiveness: Tools and Mindset. London: Springer; 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Kindscher K, Wittenberg R. The Naming and Classification of Echinacea Species. In: Kindscher K, editor. Echinacea: Herbal Medicine with a Wild History. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. p. 37–45.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Gastroenterology.

Blog post
1. Evans K. Survey Off Alaska Discovers Multiple New Types of Deep Water-Dwelling Fish [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Comments on Proposed FPR Subpart. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1981 Jul. Report No.: B-203515.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Seevaratnam N. Forecasting Optimality in Resource Utilization for Cloud Computing Systems to Maximize Quality of Service [Doctoral dissertation]. [Washington, DC]: George Washington University; 2019.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Kimmelman M. In the Bronx, Tennis for Everyone. New York Times. 2017 Apr 28;C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Gastroenterology
AbbreviationJ. Gastroenterol.
ISSN (print)0944-1174
ISSN (online)1435-5922

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