How to format your references using the Journal of Forensic Radiology and Imaging citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Forensic Radiology and Imaging. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
W.B. Kristan, Neuroscience. A push-me pull-you neural design, Science. 315 (2007) 339–340.
A journal article with 2 authors
S. Merritt, A. Clauset, Environmental structure and competitive scoring advantages in team competitions, Sci. Rep. 3 (2013) 3067.
A journal article with 3 authors
R.D. Kolodner, D.W. Cleveland, C.D. Putnam, Cancer. Aneuploidy drives a mutator phenotype in cancer, Science. 333 (2011) 942–943.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
I. Castro-Rodriguez, H. Nakai, L.N. Zakharov, A.L. Rheingold, K. Meyer, A linear, O-coordinated eta1-CO2 bound to uranium, Science. 305 (2004) 1757–1759.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
American Counseling Association, The ACA Encyclopedia of Counseling, American Counseling Association, Alexandria, VA, USA, 2015.
An edited book
M. Heupel, T. Reinold, eds., The Rule of Law in Global Governance, Palgrave Macmillan UK, London, 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
R. Ahrend, Russia’s Economic Expansion 1999–2005, in: L. Vinhas de Souza, O. Havrylyshyn (Eds.), Return to Growth in CIS Countries: Monetary Policy and Macroeconomic Framework, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2006: pp. 90–121.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Forensic Radiology and Imaging.

Blog post
S. Luntz, Branching Heat Lines Could Improve Energy Storage, IFLScience. (2015). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Risk and Control of the Software Maintenance Process, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1987.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
N. Rostambeigi, Analyzing the correlates of patients’ adoption of preventative health services: Perceived risk, cost and availability of health care services, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J. Clarke, Surf’s Up, Finally, for Women at America’s Premier Big-Wave Competition, New York Times. (2016) D5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Forensic Radiology and Imaging
AbbreviationJ. Forens. Radiol. Imaging
ISSN (print)2212-4780

Other styles