How to format your references using the Journal of Forensic Radiology and Imaging citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Forensic Radiology and Imaging. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
M.D. Hauser, The possibility of impossible cultures, Nature. 460 (2009) 190–196.
A journal article with 2 authors
D.M. Anderson, D. Archer, Glacial--interglacial stability of ocean pH inferred from foraminifer dissolution rates, Nature. 416 (2002) 70–73.
A journal article with 3 authors
H.I. Karunadasa, C.J. Chang, J.R. Long, A molecular molybdenum-oxo catalyst for generating hydrogen from water, Nature. 464 (2010) 1329–1333.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
W. de Lau, N. Barker, T.Y. Low, B.-K. Koo, V.S.W. Li, H. Teunissen, P. Kujala, A. Haegebarth, P.J. Peters, M. van de Wetering, D.E. Stange, J.E. van Es, D. Guardavaccaro, R.B.M. Schasfoort, Y. Mohri, K. Nishimori, S. Mohammed, A.J.R. Heck, H. Clevers, Lgr5 homologues associate with Wnt receptors and mediate R-spondin signalling, Nature. 476 (2011) 293–297.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
G. Kharmanda, A. El Hami, Reliability in Biomechanics, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2016.
An edited book
J. Field, V.T. Vasconcelos, eds., Coordination Models and Languages: 11th International Conference, COORDINATION 2009, Lisboa, Portugal, June 9-12, 2009. Proceedings, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
M. Alam, G. Kruger, S.B. Megdal, D. Songstad, Impact of Technology and Policy on Sustainable Agricultural Water Use and Food Security, in: D.D. Songstad, J.L. Hatfield, D.T. Tomes (Eds.), Convergence of Food Security, Energy Security and Sustainable Agriculture, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2014: pp. 75–112.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Forensic Radiology and Imaging.

Blog post
K. Evans, New Species Of Gecko Gets Naked Quickly To Escape, IFLScience. (2017). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Mass Transit: Needs Projections Could Better Reflect Future Costs, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1993.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
A.W. Lange, Calcineurin/NFATc1/DSCR1 Pathway Function in Cardiac Valvuloseptal Development and Down Syndrome-Related Phenotypes, Doctoral dissertation, University of Cincinnati, 2006.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
R. Nordland, J. Kanter, Turkey and E.U. Near Breaking Point in Talks on Membership, New York Times. (2016) A4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Forensic Radiology and Imaging
AbbreviationJ. Forens. Radiol. Imaging
ISSN (print)2212-4780

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