How to format your references using the Journal of Forensic Radiology and Imaging citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Forensic Radiology and Imaging. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
M.S. Smith, Opening education, Science. 323 (2009) 89–93.
A journal article with 2 authors
N. Mesgarani, E.F. Chang, Selective cortical representation of attended speaker in multi-talker speech perception, Nature. 485 (2012) 233–236.
A journal article with 3 authors
I.A. Solov’yov, T. Domratcheva, K. Schulten, Separation of photo-induced radical pair in cryptochrome to a functionally critical distance, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 3845.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
E.J.R. Parteli, J. Schmidt, C. Blümel, K.-E. Wirth, W. Peukert, T. Pöschel, Attractive particle interaction forces and packing density of fine glass powders, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 6227.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
H.G. Kandel, Verfahrenstechnische Methoden in der Wirkstoffherstellung, Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, FRG, 2005.
An edited book
T. Dohi, H. Liao, eds., Computer Aided Surgery: 7th Asian Conference on Computer Aided Surgery, Bangkok, Thailand, August 2011, Proceedings, Springer Japan, Tokyo, 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
A.Y. Nyporko, DNA Dependent DNA Polymerases as Targets for Low-Weight Molecular Inhibitors: State of Art and Prospects of Rational Design, in: L. Gorb, V. Kuz’min, E. Muratov (Eds.), Application of Computational Techniques in Pharmacy and Medicine, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2014: pp. 95–135.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Forensic Radiology and Imaging.

Blog post
A. Carpineti, New Study Explains The Mystery Of The Moon’s Formation, IFLScience. (2015).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Head Start: Progress and Challenges in Implementing Transportation Regulations, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2006.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
J. Qian, Characterization of Transcription-independent APC Tumor Suppressor Function in Apoptosis, Doctoral dissertation, University of Cincinnati, 2006.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M. Pilon, Skipping School and Work? They Just Felt Blue, New York Times. (2012) B13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Forensic Radiology and Imaging
AbbreviationJ. Forens. Radiol. Imaging
ISSN (print)2212-4780

Other styles