How to format your references using the Journal of Forensic Radiology and Imaging citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Forensic Radiology and Imaging. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
K. Kleiner, Assault on batteries, Nature. 441 (2006) 1046–1047.
A journal article with 2 authors
A. Caicedo, S.D. Roper, Taste receptor cells that discriminate between bitter stimuli, Science. 291 (2001) 1557–1560.
A journal article with 3 authors
N. Pfanner, N. Wiedemann, C. Meisinger, Cell biology. Double membrane fusion, Science. 305 (2004) 1723–1724.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
C. Bouzat, F. Gumilar, G. Spitzmaul, H.-L. Wang, D. Rayes, S.B. Hansen, P. Taylor, S.M. Sine, Coupling of agonist binding to channel gating in an ACh-binding protein linked to an ion channel, Nature. 430 (2004) 896–900.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
R. Kill, The BRC Global Standard for Food Safety, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK, 2012.
An edited book
R.O. Topaloglu, ed., More than Moore Technologies for Next Generation Computer Design, Springer, New York, NY, 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
E. Wiegandt, From Principles to Action: Incentives to Enforce Common Property Water Management, in: E. Wiegandt (Ed.), Mountains: Sources of Water, Sources of Knowledge, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2008: pp. 63–79.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Forensic Radiology and Imaging.

Blog post
J. O`Callaghan, Your Google Maps Images Are About To Get A Whole Lot Better Thanks To This Satellite, IFLScience. (2016).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, International Aviation: DOT Needs Better Data for Monitoring and Decisionmaking, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1995.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
A. Hardison, Achieving Literacy Excellence through Identifying and Utilizing High Yield Strategies, Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
S.K. (nyt), World Briefing | Europe: Russia: Apology Demanded For Latvian Insult, New York Times. (2004) A12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Forensic Radiology and Imaging
AbbreviationJ. Forens. Radiol. Imaging
ISSN (print)2212-4780

Other styles