How to format your references using the Journal of Forensic Radiology and Imaging citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Forensic Radiology and Imaging. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
K. Kleiner, Toronto rising, Nature. 453 (2008) 252–253.
A journal article with 2 authors
D.L. Whitaker, J. Edwards, Sphagnum moss disperses spores with vortex rings, Science. 329 (2010) 406.
A journal article with 3 authors
B. Vogelstein, B. Alberts, K. Shine, Genetics. Please don’t call it cloning!, Science. 295 (2002) 1237.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
F. Vollrath, N. Hawkins, D. Porter, C. Holland, M. Boulet-Audet, Differential Scanning Fluorimetry provides high throughput data on silk protein transitions, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 5625.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
J.A. Hoschette, The Engineer’s Career Guide, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2010.
An edited book
J. Collins, P. Faratin, S. Parsons, J.A. Rodriguez-Aguilar, N.M. Sadeh, O. Shehory, E. Sklar, eds., Agent-Mediated Electronic Commerce and Trading Agent Design and Analysis: AAMAS 2007 Workshop, AMEC 2007, Honolulu, Hawaii, May 14, 2007, and AAAI 2007 Workshop, TADA 2007, Vancouver, Canada, July 23, 2007, Selected and Revised Papers, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
E. Joselevich, H. Dai, J. Liu, K. Hata, A. H. Windle, Carbon Nanotube Synthesis and Organization, in: A. Jorio, G. Dresselhaus, M.S. Dresselhaus (Eds.), Carbon Nanotubes: Advanced Topics in the Synthesis, Structure, Properties and Applications, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2008: pp. 101–165.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Forensic Radiology and Imaging.

Blog post
R. Andrews, Scorpions Have Similar Tastes In Interior Burrow Design, IFLScience. (2016).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Multiple Teacher Training Programs: Information on Budgets, Services, and Target Groups, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1995.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
I.E. Tornes, Topics in the Physics of Underdamped Josephson Systems, Doctoral dissertation, Ohio State University, 2006.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J. Kasich, The Way Forward on Health Care, New York Times. (2017) A27.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Forensic Radiology and Imaging
AbbreviationJ. Forens. Radiol. Imaging
ISSN (print)2212-4780

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