How to format your references using the Journal of Foot and Ankle Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Foot and Ankle Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Rhein M. Oceanography. Drifters reveal deep circulation. Nature. 2000;407:30–1.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Kim E, Chan MHW. Observation of superflow in solid helium. Science. 2004;305:1941–4.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Morewedge CK, Huh YE, Vosgerau J. Thought for food: imagined consumption reduces actual consumption. Science. 2010;330:1530–3.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Cowan T, Cai W, Purich A, Rotstayn L, England MH. Forcing of anthropogenic aerosols on temperature trends of the sub-thermocline southern Indian Ocean. Sci Rep. 2013;3:2245.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Gadd K. TRIZ for Engineers: Enabling Inventive Problem Solving. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2011.
An edited book
1. Lemmon DR. Developing Statistical Software in Fortran 95. Schafer JL, editor. New York, NY: Springer; 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Gorlatch S, Alt M. Grid Programming with Java, RMI, and Skeletons. In: Cunha JC, Rana OF, editors. Grid Computing: Software Environments and Tools. London: Springer; 2006. p. 99–125.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Foot and Ankle Research.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Artistic Squirrel Carves His Own Jack-O-Lantern [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Federally Funded Research Centers: Agency Reviews of Employee Compensation and Center Performance. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2014 Aug. Report No.: GAO-14-593.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Dilenschneider AM. Refusing to be put aside: Women and the meaning of betrayal [Doctoral dissertation]. [Carpinteria, CA]: Pacifica Graduate Institute; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Greenberg J. The Long, Long Road to Building ‘Fences.’ New York Times. 2016 Dec 23;AR8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Foot and Ankle Research
AbbreviationJ. Foot Ankle Res.
ISSN (online)1757-1146
ScopeOrthopedics and Sports Medicine

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