How to format your references using the Journal of Foot and Ankle Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Foot and Ankle Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Nudo RJ. Rehabilitation: Boost for movement. Nature. 2015;527:314–5.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Stoltz DB, Whitfield JB. Virology. Making nice with viruses. Science. 2009;323:884–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Simmons SL, Bazylinski DA, Edwards KJ. South-seeking magnetotactic bacteria in the Northern Hemisphere. Science. 2006;311:371–4.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Saito M, Tsounapi P, Oikawa R, Shimizu S, Honda M, Sejima T, et al. Prostatic ischemia induces ventral prostatic hyperplasia in the SHR; possible mechanism of development of BPH. Sci Rep. 2014;4:3822.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Szylar C. Risk Management under UCITS III/IV. Hoboken, NJ USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2013.
An edited book
1. Rojas OJ, editor. Cellulose Chemistry and Properties: Fibers, Nanocelluloses and Advanced Materials. 1st ed. 2016. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Privat M, Warner R. Creating a Data Model. In: Warner R, editor. Pro Core Data for iOS: Data Access and Persistence Engine for iPhone, iPad, and iPod touch. Berkeley, CA: Apress; 2011. p. 111–32.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Foot and Ankle Research.

Blog post
1. Carpineti A. Meteorites Show How Dry Mars Really Is [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/space/meteorites-show-how-dry-mars-really-is/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Comments on Authority of Office of Education for Access to Accreditation-Related Records. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1977 Apr. Report No.: B-164031(1).150.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Miller C. Assembly and analysis of an Sp185/333 gene cluster from the purple sea urchin: Putative evidence for microsatellite-mediated gene and segmental duplication [Doctoral dissertation]. [Washington, DC]: George Washington University; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Greenhouse L. Justices’ Vote in Death Case Is Close Again, but Differing. New York Times. 2007 May 15;A16.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Foot and Ankle Research
AbbreviationJ. Foot Ankle Res.
ISSN (online)1757-1146
ScopeOrthopedics and Sports Medicine

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