How to format your references using the Journal of Foot and Ankle Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Foot and Ankle Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Kronenberg HM. Developmental regulation of the growth plate. Nature. 2003;423:332–6.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Ichinose G, Sayama H. Evolution of fairness in the not quite ultimatum game. Sci Rep. 2014;4:5104.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Holmberg VC, Panthani MG, Korgel BA. Phase transitions, melting dynamics, and solid-state diffusion in a nano test tube. Science. 2009;326:405–7.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Cordaux R, Deepa E, Vishwanathan H, Stoneking M. Genetic evidence for the demic diffusion of agriculture to India. Science. 2004;304:1125.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Subramanian MN. Polymer Blends and Composites. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2017.
An edited book
1. Hoppe A, editor. Catastrophes: Views from Natural and Human Sciences. 1st ed. 2016. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Frederico E, Parente JG. Determinants of Relationship Continuity between Fashion Retailers and Suppliers in Brazil. In: Swoboda B, Morschett D, Rudolph T, Schnedlitz P, Schramm-Klein H, editors. European Retail Research. Wiesbaden: Gabler Verlag; 2009. p. 87–115.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Foot and Ankle Research.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Gecko-Inspired Climbing Paddles Allow A Man To Climb A Glass Wall [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Month In Review, August 1999: Reports, Testimony, Correspondence, and Other Publications. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1999 Sep. Report No.: OPA-99-11.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Tu K-H. Structural and Functional Analysis of Apolipoprotein E3/E4 Hybrid [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
1. Binder S. Mitch McConnell’s Wizardry. New York Times. 2017 Jun 23;A27.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Foot and Ankle Research
AbbreviationJ. Foot Ankle Res.
ISSN (online)1757-1146
ScopeOrthopedics and Sports Medicine

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