How to format your references using the Journal of Foot and Ankle Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Foot and Ankle Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Koen D. Nuts and bolts. Nature. 2003;426:588.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Silver PG, Behn MD. Intermittent plate tectonics? Science. 2008;319:85–8.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Arendt D, Technau U, Wittbrodt J. Evolution of the bilaterian larval foregut. Nature. 2001;409:81–5.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Yang G, Liu L, Lv F, Wang S. Conjugated polyelectrolyte materials for promoting progenitor cell growth without serum. Sci Rep. 2013;3:1702.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Soustelle M. Phase Transformations. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2016.
An edited book
1. Cena L. Prendersi cura dei bambini e dei loro genitori: La ricerca clinica per l’intervento. Baldoni F, Imbasciati A, editors. Milano: Springer; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Jantan M, Kamarudin AR, Hoe OB. Service Quality Criteria and Consumer Choice in Retail Banking. In: Sidin S, Manrai AK, editors. Proceedings of the 1997 World Marketing Congress. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015. p. 14–14.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Foot and Ankle Research.

Blog post
1. Andrew D. If We Find ET, Don’t Talk To It, Says The Man Who Wants To Find ET [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/space/if-we-find-et-dont-talk-to-it-says-the-man-who-wants-to-find-et/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Applying Agreed-Upon Procedures: Airport and Airway Trust Fund Excise Taxes. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2006 Nov. Report No.: GAO-07-132R.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Emerson JD. The Jambalaya That is My Brain [Doctoral dissertation]. [Cincinnati, OH]: University of Cincinnati; 2001.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Oestreich JR. Centuries Later, Delivering a Sibling to Beethoven. New York Times. 2017 Apr 21;C2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Foot and Ankle Research
AbbreviationJ. Foot Ankle Res.
ISSN (online)1757-1146
ScopeOrthopedics and Sports Medicine

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