How to format your references using the Journal of Foot and Ankle Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Foot and Ankle Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Boland J. Materials science: Diamond gets harder. Nature. 2014;510:220–1.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Bell AC, Felsenfeld G. Methylation of a CTCF-dependent boundary controls imprinted expression of the Igf2 gene. Nature. 2000;405:482–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Morewedge CK, Huh YE, Vosgerau J. Thought for food: imagined consumption reduces actual consumption. Science. 2010;330:1530–3.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Curé C, Antunes R, Alves AC, Visser F, Kvadsheim PH, Miller PJO. Responses of male sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus) to killer whale sounds: implications for anti-predator strategies. Sci Rep. 2013;3:1579.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Kar P. Doping in Conjugated Polymers. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2013.
An edited book
1. Culp P. Shopping for Water: How the Market Can Mitigate Water Shortages in the American West. Glennon R, Libecap G, editors. Washington, DC: Island Press/Center for Resource Economics; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Birol E, Koundouri P, Remoundou K. The Implementation of the European Union Water Framework Directive in Cyprus. In: Koundouri P, editor. Water Resources Allocation: Policy and Socioeconomic Issues in Cyprus. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2011. p. 33–43.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Foot and Ankle Research.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. The ‘Coldest Place in the Universe’ Is Shaped Like a Ghost! [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2013 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/space/‘coldest-place-universe’-shaped-ghost/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Automated Medical Records: Leadership Needed to Expedite Standards Development. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1993 Apr. Report No.: IMTEC-93-17.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Marmolejo R. Drop-in center for homeless veteran families: A grant proposal [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Greenhouse L. His Hipness, John G. Roberts. New York Times. 2006 Jul 9;WK7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Foot and Ankle Research
AbbreviationJ. Foot Ankle Res.
ISSN (online)1757-1146
ScopeOrthopedics and Sports Medicine

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