How to format your references using the Nuclear Fusion citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Nuclear Fusion. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sharpe T 2015 Geology. The birth of the geological map Science 347 230–2
A journal article with 2 authors
Feld J J and Hoofnagle J H 2005 Mechanism of action of interferon and ribavirin in treatment of hepatitis C Nature 436 967–72
A journal article with 3 authors
Hsiang S M, Burke M and Miguel E 2013 Quantifying the influence of climate on human conflict Science 341 1235367
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Kühnle A, Linderoth T R, Hammer B and Besenbacher F 2002 Chiral recognition in dimerization of adsorbed cysteine observed by scanning tunnelling microscopy Nature 415 891–3

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Merrills J and Fisher J 2008 Pharmacy Law and Practice (Oxford, UK: Blackwell Science Ltd)
An edited book
Courtet P 2016 Understanding Suicide: From Diagnosis to Personalized Treatment (Cham: Springer International Publishing)
A chapter in an edited book
Powsner S 2015 Psychiatric Consultation in the Emergency Setting Handbook of Consultation-Liaison Psychiatry ed H Leigh and J Streltzer (Cham: Springer International Publishing) pp 39–62

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Nuclear Fusion.

Blog post
Davis J 2015 Floating Plastic Found Within The Arctic Circle IFLScience


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 2006 Social Security Numbers: Internet Resellers Provide Few Full SSNs, but Congress Should Consider Enacting Standards for Truncating SSNs (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Rhoads E P 2006 Knowledge management practices in U.S. federal agencies: The catalyst for E-Government transformation Doctoral dissertation (Washington, DC: George Washington University)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Paulson M and Deb S 2017 How Outrage Built Over a Shakespearean Depiction of Trump New York Times A24

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleNuclear Fusion
AbbreviationNucl. Fusion
ISSN (print)0029-5515
ISSN (online)1741-4326
ScopeCondensed Matter Physics
Nuclear and High Energy Physics

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