How to format your references using the Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology (JCNP). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smith O. Development. Nota bene: a SAC of crumbs and stardust. Science. 2001;294(5551):2498.
A journal article with 2 authors
Mandelli D, Tosatti E. Nanophysics: Microscopic friction emulators. Nature. 2015;526(7573):332–333.
A journal article with 3 authors
Cui P, Tang M, Wu Z-X. Message spreading in networks with stickiness and persistence: large clustering does not always facilitate large-scale diffusion. 2014 September 9 Epub.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Norkko A, Villnäs A, Norkko J, Valanko S, Pilditch C. Size matters: implications of the loss of large individuals for ecosystem function. 2013 Epub.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Robyns B, François B, Delille G, Saudemont C. Energy Storage in Electric Power Grids. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2015.
An edited book
Balas VE, Fodor J, Várkonyi-Kóczy AR, editors. New Concepts and Applications in Soft Computing. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Mangiron C, Zhang X. Game Accessibility for the Blind: Current Overview and the Potential Application of Audio Description as the Way Forward. In: Matamala A, Orero P, editors. Researching Audio Description: New Approaches. London: Palgrave Macmillan UK; 2016: 75–95.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology.

Blog post
Hale T. Pouring Sulfuric Acid Onto Toilet Roll Is Oddly Satisfying. October 17, 2016. Available at: Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Critical Infrastructure Protection: National Plan for Information Systems Protection. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2000.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Thomack A. Random Harmonic Polynomials. 2017;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kitsantonis N. Debt Relief, With Pain, Is on the Way For Greece. New York Times2017;B3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (2).
This sentence cites two references (2,2).
This sentence cites four references (2,2,2,2).

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Clinical Neurophysiology
AbbreviationJ. Clin. Neurophysiol.
ISSN (print)0736-0258
ISSN (online)1537-1603
Clinical Neurology
Physiology (medical)

Other styles