How to format your references using the Journal of Fish Biology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Fish Biology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wickware, P. (2000). Progress from a fragile start. Nature, 403, 466.
A journal article with 2 authors
Debenedetti, P. G., & Stillinger, F. H. (2001). Supercooled liquids and the glass transition. Nature, 410, 259–267.
A journal article with 3 authors
Burrone, J., O’Byrne, M., & Murthy, V. N. (2002). Multiple forms of synaptic plasticity triggered by selective suppression of activity in individual neurons. Nature, 420, 414–418.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Lake, M. W., Wuebbens, M. M., Rajagopalan, K. V., & Schindelin, H. (2001). Mechanism of ubiquitin activation revealed by the structure of a bacterial MoeB-MoaD complex. Nature, 414, 325–329.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Crane, S. (2013). Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of Dao. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Eslami, M. R. (2013). Theory of Elasticity and Thermal Stresses: Explanations, Problems and Solutions. R. B. Hetnarski, J. Ignaczak, N. Noda, N. Sumi, & Y. Tanigawa (Eds.). Solid Mechanics and Its Applications. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands. Vol. 197.
A chapter in an edited book
von Lücken, C., Brizuela, C., & Barán, B. (2015). Clustering Based Parallel Many-Objective Evolutionary Algorithms Using the Shape of the Objective Vectors. In A. Gaspar-Cunha, C. Henggeler Antunes, & C. C. Coello (Eds.), Evolutionary Multi-Criterion Optimization: 8th International Conference, EMO 2015, Guimarães, Portugal, March 29 --April 1, 2015. Proceedings, Part II (pp. 50–64). Cham: Springer International PublishingLecture Notes in Computer Science.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Fish Biology.

Blog post
Fang, J. (2014). Solar Plane to Attempt Round-the-World Flight (accessed Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1990). Quality Management: Scoping Study. ACG/OPS-91-1. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Macy, P. (2017). Underachievement in Gifted Students: Understanding Perceptions of Educational Experiences, Attitudes Toward School, and Teacher Training (Doctoral dissertation). Lindenwood University, St. Charles, MO.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G. (2010). A Foreign Game Looks Very American. New York Times. June 24, 2010, p. B12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Wickware, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Debenedetti & Stillinger, 2001; Wickware, 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Debenedetti & Stillinger, 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Lake et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Fish Biology
AbbreviationJ. Fish Biol.
ISSN (print)0022-1112
ISSN (online)1095-8649
ScopeAquatic Science
Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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