How to format your references using the Frontiers in Neuromuscular Diseases citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Neuromuscular Diseases. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kotok, A. (2008). Science careers. Business financing for your research. Science 319, 1549.
A journal article with 2 authors
Moar, W. J., and Anilkumar, K. J. (2007). Plant science. The power of the pyramid. Science 318, 1561–1562.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wu, B., Parquette, J. R., and RajanBabu, T. V. (2009). Regiodivergent ring opening of chiral aziridines. Science 326, 1662.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Lin, Y., Skaff, H., Emrick, T., Dinsmore, A. D., and Russell, T. P. (2003). Nanoparticle assembly and transport at liquid-liquid interfaces. Science 299, 226–229.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kagan, E., and Ben-Gal, I. (2013). Probabilistic Search for Tracking Targets. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Kim, H. ed. (2012). Advances in Technology and Management: Proceedings of the 2012 International Conference on Technology and Management (ICTAM 2012), International Convention Center Jeju, Jeju-Island, Korea. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Hou, Y., Li, E., and Sun, S. (2011). “Research on Testing Methods of I-V Characteristics of Solar Photovoltaic Cell Array,” in Electronics and Signal Processing: Selected Papers from the 2011 International Conference on Electric and Electronics (EEIC 2011) in Nanchang, China on June 20–22, 2011, Volume 1 Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering., ed. W. Hu (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer), 23–28.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Neuromuscular Diseases.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015). Male Black Widows Wreck Females’ Webs To Make Them Less Attractive. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1977). Mission Budgeting: Discussion and Illustration of the Concept in Research and Development Programs. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Cannon, M. P. (2013). Cenozoic kinematics of the Little Pine fault, Santa Maria Basin, California.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, M. (1992). THE 1992 CAMPAIGN: The Republicans; Encircling Arkansas, Bush Opens Harsh Attack on Clinton’s Record. New York Times, A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kotok, 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Moar and Anilkumar, 2007; Kotok, 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Moar and Anilkumar, 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Lin et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Neuromuscular Diseases
AbbreviationFront. Neurol.
ISSN (online)1664-2295
ScopeClinical Neurology

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