How to format your references using the Frontiers in Neuromuscular Diseases citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Neuromuscular Diseases. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Julian, B. (2002). Plate tectonics. Seismological detection of slab metamorphism. Science 296, 1625–1626.
A journal article with 2 authors
Logan, B. E., and Elimelech, M. (2012). Membrane-based processes for sustainable power generation using water. Nature 488, 313–319.
A journal article with 3 authors
Albert, R., Jeong, H., and Barabasi, A. L. (2000). Error and attack tolerance of complex networks. Nature 406, 378–382.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Chugunov, A. O., Volynsky, P. E., Krylov, N. A., Boldyrev, I. A., and Efremov, R. G. (2014). Liquid but durable: molecular dynamics simulations explain the unique properties of archaeal-like membranes. Sci. Rep. 4, 7462.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Morales, G., and Kacher, C. (2015). Short Selling with the O’Neil Disciples. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Potop-Butucaru, D. (2007). Compiling Esterel. , eds. S. A. Edwards and G. Berry Boston, MA: Springer US.
A chapter in an edited book
Altun, K., and Barshan, B. (2010). “Human Activity Recognition Using Inertial/Magnetic Sensor Units,” in Human Behavior Understanding: First International Workshop, HBU 2010, Istanbul, Turkey, August 22, 2010. Proceedings Lecture Notes in Computer Science., eds. A. A. Salah, T. Gevers, N. Sebe, and A. Vinciarelli (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer), 38–51.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Neuromuscular Diseases.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015). How Deadly Cancer May Actually Be Spread By Survival Mechanism. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1989). Ocean Research Fleet: NOAA Needs to Plan for Long-Term Fleet Requirements. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Davenport, L. C. (2008). Behavior and ecology of the Giant Otter (Pteronura brasiliensis) in oxbow lakes of the Manú Biosphere Reserve, Perú.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Cooper, M. (2017). Dudamel Condemns Venezuelan Politics. New York Times, C2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Julian, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Julian, 2002; Logan and Elimelech, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Logan and Elimelech, 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Chugunov et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Neuromuscular Diseases
AbbreviationFront. Neurol.
ISSN (online)1664-2295
ScopeClinical Neurology

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