How to format your references using the Frontiers in Neuromuscular Diseases citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Neuromuscular Diseases. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Reed, C. (2014). Winter is coming. Science 344, 1054.
A journal article with 2 authors
Holt, C. E., and Bullock, S. L. (2009). Subcellular mRNA localization in animal cells and why it matters. Science 326, 1212–1216.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ford, E. B., Lystad, V., and Rasio, F. A. (2005). Planet-planet scattering in the upsilon Andromedae system. Nature 434, 873–876.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Villunger, A., Michalak, E. M., Coultas, L., Müllauer, F., Böck, G., Ausserlechner, M. J., et al. (2003). p53- and drug-induced apoptotic responses mediated by BH3-only proteins puma and noxa. Science 302, 1036–1038.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lalanne, C. (2014). Mechanical Shock. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Elmoataz, A., Lezoray, O., Nouboud, F., Mammass, D., and Meunier, J. eds. (2010). Image and Signal Processing: 4th International Conference, ICISP 2010, Trois-Rivières, QC, Canada, June 30-July 2, 2010. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Liu, X., Fernandes, R., Jurisicova, A., Casper, R. F., and Sun, Y. (2011). “Cellular Force Measurement Using Computer Vision Microscopy and a Polymeric Microdevice,” in Signal Measurement and Estimation Techniques for Micro and Nanotechnology, eds. C. Clévy, M. Rakotondrabe, and N. Chaillet (New York, NY: Springer), 133–151.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Neuromuscular Diseases.

Blog post
Andrew, D. (2016). Can We Use A Simple Blood Test To Detect Cancer? IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1990). Pell Grants: How the Department of Education Estimates Program Costs. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Christian, T. M. (2012). Under the Navajo stars: The intersection of mythic narratives, archaeology, and star ceilings.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, M. (1992). THE 1992 CAMPAIGN: Undeclared Candidate; Perot Stresses Homey Image, But the Image Is No Accident. New York Times, A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Reed, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Holt and Bullock, 2009; Reed, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Holt and Bullock, 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Villunger et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Neuromuscular Diseases
AbbreviationFront. Neurol.
ISSN (online)1664-2295
ScopeClinical Neurology

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