How to format your references using the Journal of Family and Economic Issues citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Family and Economic Issues. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Goldstein, L. (2012). US election: Know your representatives. Nature, 489(7417), 494–495.
A journal article with 2 authors
Budd, G. E., & Telford, M. J. (2009). The origin and evolution of arthropods. Nature, 457(7231), 812–817.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lammert, E., Cleaver, O., & Melton, D. (2001). Induction of pancreatic differentiation by signals from blood vessels. Science (New York, N.Y.), 294(5542), 564–567.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Lunt, D. J., Foster, G. L., Haywood, A. M., & Stone, E. J. (2008). Late Pliocene Greenland glaciation controlled by a decline in atmospheric CO2 levels. Nature, 454(7208), 1102–1105.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Flynn, J. R. (2012). How to Improve Your Mind. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.
An edited book
Mehler, A. (2007). Aspects of Automatic Text Analysis. (R. Köhler, Ed.) (Vol. 209). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Shmaliy, Y. (2007). LTI Systems in the Frequency Domain (Transform Analysis). In Y. Shmaliy (Ed.), Continuous-Time Systems (pp. 239–347). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Family and Economic Issues.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, April 14). Crowdfunding Could Be A Simple Way To Pay For Science Research. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2003). Reducing Congestion: Congestion Pricing Has Promise for Improving Use of Transportation Infrastructure (No. GAO-03-735T). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Saifman, H. P. (2017). Millennial Nurse Manager Perspectives on Their Leadership Roles in the Hospital Setting: A Phenomenological Inquiry (Doctoral dissertation). Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, FL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rothenberg, B. (2017, January 3). A Rested Williams Shakes Off the Rust. New York Times, p. B11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Goldstein 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Budd and Telford 2009; Goldstein 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Budd and Telford 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Lunt et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Family and Economic Issues
AbbreviationJ. Fam. Econ. Issues
ISSN (print)1058-0476
ISSN (online)1573-3475
ScopeEconomics and Econometrics
Social Psychology
General Economics, Econometrics and Finance
General Social Sciences

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