How to format your references using the Clinical Proteomics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical Proteomics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Tollestrup AV. Robert Rathbun Wilson (1914-2000). Nature. 2000;404:350.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Glass K, Girvan M. Annotation enrichment analysis: an alternative method for evaluating the functional properties of gene sets. Sci Rep. 2014;4:4191.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Carpenter SJ, Erickson JM, Holland FD Jr. Migration of a Late Cretaceous fish. Nature. 2003;423:70–4.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Lee Y-J, Kim D, Lee K, Chun J-Y. Single-channel multiplexing without melting curve analysis in real-time PCR. Sci Rep. 2014;4:7439.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Todinov M. Reliability and Risk Models. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2015.
An edited book
1. Tolan PH, Leventhal BL, editors. Disruptive Behavior Disorders. New York, NY: Springer; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Remuß V, Deeg C, Musial M, Hommel G, Béjar M, Cuesta F, et al. Autonomous Helicopters. In: Ollero A, Maza I, editors. Multiple Heterogeneous Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2007. p. 111–46.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical Proteomics.

Blog post
1. Taub B. Here’s Why You Can’t Hear Your Heartbeat [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Railroad Safety: Human Factor Accidents and Issues Affecting Engineer Work Schedules. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1993 Jul. Report No.: RCED-93-160BR.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Diddi V. Digitally Controlled Microwave Power Amplifier Design Techniques for Wireless Communications [Doctoral dissertation]. [La Jolla, CA]: University of California San Diego; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Vecsey G. Summoning Another Storm. New York Times. 2011 Sep 12;D8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical Proteomics
AbbreviationClin. Proteomics
ISSN (print)1542-6416
ISSN (online)1559-0275
ScopeClinical Biochemistry
Molecular Biology
Molecular Medicine

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