How to format your references using the Journal of Experimental Psychology: General citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Experimental Psychology: General. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lightman, A. (2005). A tale of two loves. Nature, 434(7031), 299–300.
A journal article with 2 authors
Grubb, M. S., & Burrone, J. (2010). Activity-dependent relocation of the axon initial segment fine-tunes neuronal excitability. Nature, 465(7301), 1070–1074.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lustig, R. H., Schmidt, L. A., & Brindis, C. D. (2012). Public health: The toxic truth about sugar. Nature, 482(7383), 27–29.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Sarkar, I., Hauber, I., Hauber, J., & Buchholz, F. (2007). HIV-1 proviral DNA excision using an evolved recombinase. Science (New York, N.Y.), 316(5833), 1912–1915.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Panek, W., & Wentworth, T. (2010). Mastering Microsoft® Windows® 7 Administration. Wiley Publishing, Inc.
An edited book
Lee, P. T.-W., & Cullinane, K. (Eds.). (2016). Dynamic Shipping and Port Development in the Globalized Economy: Volume 2: Emerging Trends in Ports. Palgrave Macmillan UK.
A chapter in an edited book
Djordjevic, I., Ryan, W., & Vasic, B. (2010). Channel Coding for Optical Channels. In W. Ryan & B. Vasic (Eds.), Coding for Optical Channels (pp. 123–178). Springer US.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Experimental Psychology: General.

Blog post
Davis, J. (2016, July 26). China May Have Passed Peak Coal Consumption. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1992). Army Accounting Adjustments--Tank-Automotive Command (AFMD-92-102ML). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lu, W.-Y. (2012). The performance practice of Buddhist baiqi in contemporary Taiwan [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Maryland, College Park.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, L. C. C. (1981, December 5). PEARL HARBOR’S INFAMY, MY FATHER’S FAME. New York Times, 125.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Lightman, 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Grubb & Burrone, 2010; Lightman, 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Grubb & Burrone, 2010)
  • Three authors: (Lustig et al., 2012)
  • 6 or more authors: (Sarkar et al., 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Experimental Psychology: General
AbbreviationJ. Exp. Psychol. Gen.
ISSN (print)0096-3445
ISSN (online)1939-2222
ScopeDevelopmental Neuroscience
General Psychology
Experimental and Cognitive Psychology

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