How to format your references using the Journal of Ethology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Ethology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Richmond CR (2000) How neptunium led to the birth of plutonium. Nature 406:455
A journal article with 2 authors
Aldecoa R, Marín I (2013) Exploring the limits of community detection strategies in complex networks. Sci Rep 3:2216
A journal article with 3 authors
Kärkäs MD, Matsuura BS, Stephenson CRJ (2015) ORGANIC CHEMISTRY. Enchained by visible light-mediated photoredox catalysis. Science 349:1285–1286
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Stegman DR, Jellinek AM, Zatman SA, et al (2003) An early lunar core dynamo driven by thermochemical mantle convection. Nature 421:143–146

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Mullaney MD (2009) The Complete Guide to Option Strategies. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Maciaszek LA, González-Pérez C, Jablonski S (eds) (2010) Evaluation of Novel Approaches to Software Engineering: 3rd and 4th International Conferences, ENASE 2008/2009, Funchal, Madeira, Portugal, May 4-7, 2008 / Milan, Italy, May 9-10, 2009. Revised Selected Papers. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Oderda M, Gontero P (2013) Swollen and/or Painful Scrotum. In: Gontero P, Kirby RS, Carson CC III (eds) Problem Based Urology. Springer, London, pp 29–41

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Ethology.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) Sorry, Climate Change Deniers: Warming Not “Paused” and Modeling Not Flawed. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1998) Transportation Issue Area: Active Assignments. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Zhang G (2010) Roles of serotonin 2A receptor in a serotonin syndrome. Doctoral dissertation, Florida Atlantic University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Howe SH (1904) Mandan Territory. New York Times REVIEW OF BOOKSBR642

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Richmond 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Richmond 2000; Aldecoa and Marín 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Aldecoa and Marín 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Stegman et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Ethology
AbbreviationJ. Ethol.
ISSN (print)0289-0771
ISSN (online)1439-5444
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology
Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

Other styles