How to format your references using the Journal of Ethology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Ethology (J Ethol). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Robinson K (2006) Personal finance. Young scientists need firm plan to make up for a late start. Science 313:1454–1457
A journal article with 2 authors
van Doorn GS, Kirkpatrick M (2007) Turnover of sex chromosomes induced by sexual conflict. Nature 449:909–912
A journal article with 3 authors
Thore S, Leibundgut M, Ban N (2006) Structure of the eukaryotic thiamine pyrophosphate riboswitch with its regulatory ligand. Science 312:1208–1211
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Gijsbers EF, van Nuenen AC, de la Peňa AT, et al (2014) Low level of HIV-1 evolution after transmission from mother to child. Sci Rep 4:5079

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Paczosa S, Peruchini C (2013) Selling Professional and Financial Services Handbook. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Perner P, Salvetti O (eds) (2008) Advances in Mass Data Analysis of Images and Signals in Medicine, Biotechnology, Chemistry and Food Industry: Third International Conference, MDA 2008 Leipzig, Germany, July 14, 2008 Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Brown K, Laue M, Tafur J, et al (2014) An Integrated Approach to Strategic Asset Management. In: Gheorghe AV, Masera M, Katina PF (eds) Infranomics: Sustainability, Engineering Design and Governance. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 57–74

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Ethology.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) Researchers Narrow In On Common Cystic Fibrosis Infection. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1989) Meeting the Aging Aircraft Challenge: Status and Opportunities. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Andrews A (2013) Yoga as mental health treatment for cancer survivors: A grant proposal. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey G (2012) Friendships Wrapped in the Army-Navy Rivalry. New York Times B12

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Amelino-Camelia 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Kormendy 2000; Silk 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (van Doorn and Kirkpatrick 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Lu et al. 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Ethology
AbbreviationJ. Ethol.
ISSN (print)0289-0771
ISSN (online)1439-5444
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology
Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

Other styles