How to format your references using the Journal of Ethology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Ethology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Marzari F (2006) Planetary science. Puzzling Neptune Trojans. Science 313:451–452
A journal article with 2 authors
Romney DK, Miller SJ (2015) Chemistry. Climbing Jacob’s ladder. Science 347:829
A journal article with 3 authors
Briggs F, Mangun GR, Usrey WM (2013) Attention enhances synaptic efficacy and the signal-to-noise ratio in neural circuits. Nature 499:476–480
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Staddon PL, Ramsey CB, Ostle N, et al (2003) Rapid turnover of hyphae of mycorrhizal fungi determined by AMS microanalysis of 14C. Science 300:1138–1140

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
McCrary SA (2010) Mastering Corporate Finance Essentials. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Boekhout T, Mayser P, Guého-Kellermann E, Velegraki A (eds) (2010) Malassezia and the Skin: Science and Clinical Practice. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Karande S (2012) Quality of Life in Children Diagnosed with Specific Learning Disability or Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. In: Hollar D (ed) Handbook of Children with Special Health Care Needs. Springer, New York, NY, pp 73–85

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Ethology.

Blog post
Andrew D (2016) Forget Iron Man: Skintight Suits Are The Future Of Robotic Exoskeletons. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1975) College Work-Study Program. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Stanford CJ (2008) Highly sensitive fiber Bragg grating biosensors. Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly DA (2006) Overseas, the Shock of the Surcharge. New York Times 56

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Marzari 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Marzari 2006; Romney and Miller 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Romney and Miller 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Staddon et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Ethology
AbbreviationJ. Ethol.
ISSN (print)0289-0771
ISSN (online)1439-5444
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology
Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

Other styles