How to format your references using the Journal of Ethology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Ethology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Glotzer SC (2004) Materials science. Some Assembly Required. Science 306:419–420
A journal article with 2 authors
Engel H-A, Loss D (2005) Fermionic bell-state analyzer for spin qubits. Science 309:586–588
A journal article with 3 authors
Hanna RA, Campbell RL, Davies PL (2008) Calcium-bound structure of calpain and its mechanism of inhibition by calpastatin. Nature 456:409–412
A journal article with 5 or more authors
van Dam JA, Nazarov YV, Bakkers EPAM, et al (2006) Supercurrent reversal in quantum dots. Nature 442:667–670

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (2014) List of MAK and BAT Values 2014. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany
An edited book
Read J (ed) (2016) Post-admission Language Assessment of University Students. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Liang J, Wang Z, Liu X (2009) On Synchronization of Coupled Delayed Neural Networks. In: Kyamakya K, Halang WA, Unger H, et al. (eds) Recent Advances in Nonlinear Dynamics and Synchronization: Theory and Applications. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 117–149

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Ethology.

Blog post
Hale T (2016) The World’s Largest Pyramid Is Hidden Under A Hill. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1979) Information on the Labor Department’s Skill Training Improvement Program. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lamb BK (2015) A Comparison of Carbon Dioxide Emissions at a Roundabout and a Signalized Intersection in a Mid-Sized City. Doctoral dissertation, Southern Illinois University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly DA (2007) Tools for Travelers. New York Times H2

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Glotzer 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Glotzer 2004; Engel and Loss 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Engel and Loss 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (van Dam et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Ethology
AbbreviationJ. Ethol.
ISSN (print)0289-0771
ISSN (online)1439-5444
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology
Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

Other styles