How to format your references using the Journal of Ethology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Ethology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Haile-Selassie Y (2001) Late Miocene hominids from the Middle Awash, Ethiopia. Nature 412:178–181
A journal article with 2 authors
Prindle A, Hasty J (2010) Biochemistry. Stochastic emergence of groupthink. Science 328:987–988
A journal article with 3 authors
Charlson RJ, Valero FPJ, Seinfeld JH (2005) Atmospheric science. In search of balance. Science 308:806–807
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Ng WL, Lourenço MA, Gwilliam RM, et al (2001) An efficient room-temperature silicon-based light-emitting diode. Nature 410:192–194

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Schumacher L (2011) Divine Illumination. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK
An edited book
Pnueli A, Virbitskaite I, Voronkov A (eds) (2010) Perspectives of Systems Informatics: 7th International Andrei Ershov Memorial Conference, PSI 2009, Novosibirsk, Russia, June 15-19, 2009. Revised Papers. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Spiotta M, Bottrighi A, Giordano L, Theseider Dupré D (2014) Conformance Analysis of the Execution of Clinical Guidelines with Basic Medical Knowledge and Clinical Terminology. In: Miksch S, Riaño D, ten Teije A (eds) Knowledge Representation for Health Care: 6th International Workshop, KR4HC 2014, held as part of the Vienna Summer of Logic, VSL 2014, Vienna, Austria, July 21, 2014. Revised Selected Papers. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 62–77

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Ethology.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) Were Wolves Dependent On Humans Long Before They Became Man’s Best Friend? In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2007) NASA: Progress Made on Strategic Human Capital Management, but Future Program Challenges Remain. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lingley-Papadopoulos CA (2008) Image analysis of Optical Coherence Tomography images of the urinary bladder for the recognition of bladder cancer. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Witz B (2017) A Button-Down Game Gets a Needed Pinch of Pizazz. New York Times B18

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Haile-Selassie 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Haile-Selassie 2001; Prindle and Hasty 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Prindle and Hasty 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Ng et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Ethology
AbbreviationJ. Ethol.
ISSN (print)0289-0771
ISSN (online)1439-5444
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology
Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

Other styles