How to format your references using the Digital Signal Processing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Digital Signal Processing. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
T.B. Marder, Chemistry. Boron goes on the attack, Science. 314 (2006) 69–70.
A journal article with 2 authors
C.T. Reinhard, N.J. Planavsky, Mineralogical constraints on Precambrian pCO2, Nature. 474 (2011) E1-2; discussion E4-5.
A journal article with 3 authors
D.L. Gill, M.A. Spassova, J. Soboloff, Signal transduction. Calcium entry signals--trickles and torrents, Science. 313 (2006) 183–184.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
W.L. Eiserhardt, J.-C. Svenning, W.J. Baker, T.L.P. Couvreur, H. Balslev, Dispersal and niche evolution jointly shape the geographic turnover of phylogenetic clades across continents, Sci. Rep. 3 (2013) 1164.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
J.M. Flood, Wiley Gaap 2015, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2014.
An edited book
Y. Shimomura, K. Kimita, eds., The Philosopher’s Stone for Sustainability: Proceedings of the 4th CIRP International Conference on Industrial Product-Service Systems, Tokyo, Japan, November 8th - 9th, 2012, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
E.A. Pavlíková, M. Basovníková, Current Developments in Corporate Social Responsibility in the EU, in: P. Huber, D. Nerudová, P. Rozmahel (Eds.), Competitiveness, Social Inclusion and Sustainability in a Diverse European Union: Perspectives from Old and New Member States, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2016: pp. 77–98.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Digital Signal Processing.

Blog post
S. Luntz, Comet Battleground Discovered Surrounding Nearby System, IFLScience. (2014). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Medical ADP Systems: Composite Health Care System Is Not Ready to Be Deployed, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1992.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
M.H. Dougherty, Identification of needs reported by grandparents of grandchildren, from birth to twenty-one years, with disabilities in the commonwealth of Kentucky, Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J. Poniewozik, O Slapstick Tragedy!, New York Times. (2017) C2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleDigital Signal Processing
AbbreviationDigit. Signal Process.
ISSN (print)1051-2004
ScopeSignal Processing
Electrical and Electronic Engineering

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