How to format your references using the Digital Signal Processing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Digital Signal Processing. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
S. Gibson, Journal club. An organic chemist highlights an ingenious way to make radiotracers, Nature. 457 (2009) 515.
A journal article with 2 authors
L.M. Krauss, B. Chaboyer, Age estimates of globular clusters in the Milky Way: constraints on cosmology, Science. 299 (2003) 65–69.
A journal article with 3 authors
A.A. Aravin, G.J. Hannon, J. Brennecke, The Piwi-piRNA pathway provides an adaptive defense in the transposon arms race, Science. 318 (2007) 761–764.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
L. Dong, Q. Luo, K. Cheng, H. Shi, Q. Wang, W. Weng, W.-Q. Han, Facet-specific assembly of proteins on SrTiO₃ polyhedral nanocrystals, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 5084.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
P.W. Davidson, V.P. Prasher, M.P. Janicki, Mental Health, Intellectual Disabilities, and the Aging Process, Blackwell Publishing Ltd, Oxford, UK, 2008.
An edited book
T.W. Berger, Brain-Computer Interfaces: An International Assessment of Research and Development Trends, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
T. Demarcy, C. Vandersteen, C. Raffaelli, D. Gnansia, N. Guevara, N. Ayache, H. Delingette, Uncertainty Quantification of Cochlear Implant Insertion from CT Images, in: R. Shekhar, S. Wesarg, M.Á. González Ballester, K. Drechsler, Y. Sato, M. Erdt, M.G. Linguraru, C. Oyarzun Laura (Eds.), Clinical Image-Based Procedures. Translational Research in Medical Imaging: 5th International Workshop, CLIP 2016, Held in Conjunction with MICCAI 2016, Athens, Greece, October 17, 2016, Proceedings, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2016: pp. 27–35.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Digital Signal Processing.

Blog post
J. O`Callaghan, Yes, You Can Grow Potatoes On Mars, IFLScience. (2017). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Health, Education and Human Services Information Systems Issue Area--Active Assignments, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1997.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
T.N. Nunn, A Puer–Senex Archetypal Model of the Therapeutic Relationship, Doctoral dissertation, Pacifica Graduate Institute, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
P. Kelly, Letter to the Editor 3 -- No Title, New York Times. (1972) Book ReviewBR8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleDigital Signal Processing
AbbreviationDigit. Signal Process.
ISSN (print)1051-2004
ScopeSignal Processing
Electrical and Electronic Engineering

Other styles