How to format your references using the Digital Signal Processing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Digital Signal Processing. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
F. Aubret, Heart rates increase after hatching in two species of Natricine snakes, Sci. Rep. 3 (2013) 3384.
A journal article with 2 authors
Y. Karklin, M.S. Lewicki, Emergence of complex cell properties by learning to generalize in natural scenes, Nature. 457 (2009) 83–86.
A journal article with 3 authors
M. Staal, F.J.R. Meysman, L.J. Stal, Temperature excludes N2-fixing heterocystous cyanobacteria in the tropical oceans, Nature. 425 (2003) 504–507.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
S. Koide, X. Huang, K. Link, A. Koide, Z. Bu, D.M. Engelman, Design of single-layer beta-sheets without a hydrophobic core, Nature. 403 (2000) 456–460.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
L. Norris, Transplant Administration, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2014.
An edited book
T.J. Quirk, Excel 2016 for Physical Sciences Statistics: A Guide to Solving Practical Problems, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
H.M. Subhash, R.K. Wang, Optical Coherence Tomography: Technical Aspects, in: R. Liang (Ed.), Biomedical Optical Imaging Technologies: Design and Applications, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2013: pp. 163–212.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Digital Signal Processing.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Sustainability Science Is A New Academic Discipline. But Is It Sustainable?, IFLScience. (2015). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Year 2000 Computing Challenge: Readiness of USDA High-Impact Programs Improving, But More Action Is Needed, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1999.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
T.J. Farrugia, Abundance, habitat use and movement patterns of the shovelnose guitarfish (Rhinobatus productus) in a restored Southern California estuary, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
L. Greenhouse, Limits on Prison Suits Are Eased, New York Times. (2007) A15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleDigital Signal Processing
AbbreviationDigit. Signal Process.
ISSN (print)1051-2004
ScopeSignal Processing
Electrical and Electronic Engineering

Other styles