How to format your references using the CoDesign citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for CoDesign. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Cox, Andrea L. 2015. “MEDICINE. Global Control of Hepatitis C Virus.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 349 (6250): 790–791.
A journal article with 2 authors
Pasupathy, Anitha, and Earl K. Miller. 2005. “Different Time Courses of Learning-Related Activity in the Prefrontal Cortex and Striatum.” Nature 433 (7028): 873–876.
A journal article with 3 authors
Li, Bin, Zu-Huan Yu, and Shao-Ming Fei. 2013. “Geometry of Quantum Computation with Qutrits.” Scientific Reports 3: 2594.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Kaspi, Y., E. Galanti, W. B. Hubbard, D. J. Stevenson, S. J. Bolton, L. Iess, T. Guillot, et al. 2018. “Jupiter’s Atmospheric Jet Streams Extend Thousands of Kilometres Deep.” Nature 555 (7695): 223–226.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Benchaib, Abdelkrim. 2015. Advanced Control of AC/DC Power Networks. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Membrey, Peter. 2012. Practical Load Balancing: Ride the Performance Tiger. Edited by David Hows and Eelco Plugge. Berkeley, CA: Apress.
A chapter in an edited book
Koshita, Yoshiko. 2015. “Effect of Temperature on Fruit Color Development.” In Abiotic Stress Biology in Horticultural Plants, edited by Yoshinori Kanayama and Alexey Kochetov, 47–58. Tokyo: Springer Japan.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for CoDesign.

Blog post
Hale, Tom. 2016. “There Are Rumors That Russia Are Developing A Space-Cruising Nuclear Bomber.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2000. Schools and Libraries Program: Application and Invoice Review Procedures Need Strengthening. GAO-01-105. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Adams, Anthony Wayne. 2013. “Shepherd Leadership of Church of God Pastors and How This Relates to Ministerial Effectiveness.” Doctoral dissertation, Phoenix, AZ: University of Phoenix.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
MONICA KELLY; Monica Kelly lives in Larchmont. 1988. “Three Crows Cause a Neighbor to Take Flights of Fancy.” New York Times, March 27.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Cox 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Cox 2015; Pasupathy and Miller 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Pasupathy and Miller 2005)
  • Three authors: (Li, Yu, and Fei 2013)
  • 4 or more authors: (Kaspi et al. 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleCoDesign
ISSN (print)1571-0882
ISSN (online)1745-3755
ScopeVisual Arts and Performing Arts
Computer Graphics and Computer-Aided Design

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