How to format your references using the CoDesign citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for CoDesign. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lorenz, Ralph. 2003. “Planetary Science. The Glitter of Distant Seas.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 302 (5644): 403–404.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kalaany, Nada Y., and David M. Sabatini. 2009. “Tumours with PI3K Activation Are Resistant to Dietary Restriction.” Nature 458 (7239): 725–731.
A journal article with 3 authors
Srisonphan, Siwapon, Myungji Kim, and Hong Koo Kim. 2014. “Space Charge Neutralization by Electron-Transparent Suspended Graphene.” Scientific Reports 4 (January): 3764.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Tacconi, L. J., R. Genzel, R. Neri, P. Cox, M. C. Cooper, K. Shapiro, A. Bolatto, et al. 2010. “High Molecular Gas Fractions in Normal Massive Star-Forming Galaxies in the Young Universe.” Nature 463 (7282): 781–784.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Avlonas, Nikos, and George P. Nassos. 2013. Practical Sustainability Strategies. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Vanmechelen, Kurt, Jörn Altmann, and Omer F. Rana, eds. 2012. Economics of Grids, Clouds, Systems, and Services: 8th International Workshop, GECON 2011, Paphos, Cyprus, December 5, 2011, Revised Selected Papers. Vol. 7150. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Metzger, Jean Paul, and Pedro H. S. Brancalion. 2016. “Landscape Ecology and Restoration Processes.” In Foundations of Restoration Ecology, edited by Margaret A. Palmer, Joy B. Zedler, and Donald A. Falk, 90–120. Washington, DC: Island Press/Center for Resource Economics.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for CoDesign.

Blog post
Andrew, Danielle. 2016. “We’ve Found A New Family Of Stars In The Milky Way That Could Help Us Work Out How Galaxies Formed.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1981. HHS Ability To Effectively Implement Incentive Funding for State Information Systems in the Aid to Families With Dependent Children Program. HRD-81-119. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ding, Hao. 2012. “Mode of Action for Hexavalent Chromium Carcinogenicity in Drinking Water.” Doctoral dissertation, Washington, DC: George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Marx, Linda. 2015. “That Gravy Boat Has Sailed.” New York Times, July 26.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Lorenz 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Lorenz 2003; Kalaany and Sabatini 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kalaany and Sabatini 2009)
  • Three authors: (Srisonphan, Kim, and Kim 2014)
  • 4 or more authors: (Tacconi et al. 2010)

About the journal

Full journal titleCoDesign
ISSN (print)1571-0882
ISSN (online)1745-3755
ScopeVisual Arts and Performing Arts
Computer Graphics and Computer-Aided Design

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