How to format your references using the CoDesign citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for CoDesign. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Eisenstein, Michael. 2015. “Super-Resolve Me: From Micro to Nano.” Nature 526 (7573): 459–462.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ausländer, Simon, and Martin Fussenegger. 2014. “Synthetic Biology. Dynamic Genome Engineering in Living Cells.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 346 (6211): 813–814.
A journal article with 3 authors
Tsuchida, Tsutomu, Ryuichi Koga, and Takema Fukatsu. 2004. “Host Plant Specialization Governed by Facultative Symbiont.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 303 (5666): 1989.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Yelin, D., I. Rizvi, W. M. White, J. T. Motz, T. Hasan, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney. 2006. “Three-Dimensional Miniature Endoscopy.” Nature 443 (7113): 765.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Center for Chemical Process Safety. 2010. A Practical Approach to Hazard Identification for Operations and Maintenance Workers. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Amblard, Frédéric, Francisco J. Miguel, Adrien Blanchet, and Benoit Gaudou, eds. 2015. Advances in Artificial Economics. Vol. 676. Lecture Notes in Economics and Mathematical Systems. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Straumann, Ralph K., and Ross S. Purves. 2007. “Resolution Sensitivity of a Compound Terrain Derivative as Computed from LiDAR-Based Elevation Data.” In The European Information Society: Leading the Way with Geo-Information, edited by Sara Irina Fabrikant and Monica Wachowicz, 87–109. Lecture Notes in Geoinformation and Cartography. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for CoDesign.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2015. “This Is Why You Will Lose Your Argument.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1998. Space Exploration: Power Sources for Deep Space Probes. NSIAD-98-102. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Simon, Jordan T. 2017. “Classification of Mechanical and Electrical Response of High Performance Fiber Reinforced-Geopolymer Composites (HPFR-GPC).” Doctoral dissertation, Lafayette, LA: University of Louisiana.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sisario, Ben. 2016. “Bob Dylan Responds, Elliptically, to His Nobel Prize After a Two-Week Silence.” New York Times, October 28.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Eisenstein 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Eisenstein 2015; Ausländer and Fussenegger 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ausländer and Fussenegger 2014)
  • Three authors: (Tsuchida, Koga, and Fukatsu 2004)
  • 4 or more authors: (Yelin et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleCoDesign
ISSN (print)1571-0882
ISSN (online)1745-3755
ScopeVisual Arts and Performing Arts
Computer Graphics and Computer-Aided Design

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