How to format your references using the CoDesign citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for CoDesign. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Abbott, Alison. 2003. “Italians Riled by Science Reforms.” Nature 421 (6922): 465.
A journal article with 2 authors
Carrel, Laura, and Huntington F. Willard. 2005. “X-Inactivation Profile Reveals Extensive Variability in X-Linked Gene Expression in Females.” Nature 434 (7031): 400–404.
A journal article with 3 authors
Efremov, Rouslan G., Rozbeh Baradaran, and Leonid A. Sazanov. 2010. “The Architecture of Respiratory Complex I.” Nature 465 (7297): 441–445.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Mobbs, Dean, Predrag Petrovic, Jennifer L. Marchant, Demis Hassabis, Nikolaus Weiskopf, Ben Seymour, Raymond J. Dolan, and Christopher D. Frith. 2007. “When Fear Is near: Threat Imminence Elicits Prefrontal-Periaqueductal Gray Shifts in Humans.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 317 (5841): 1079–1083.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Center for Chemical Process Safety. 1995. Guidelines for Technical Planning for On-Site Emergencies. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Ingram, Jane Carter, Fabrice DeClerck, and Cristina Rumbaitis del Rio, eds. 2012. Integrating Ecology and Poverty Reduction: The Application of Ecology in Development Solutions. New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Christen, Peter, Dinusha Vatsalan, and Zhichun Fu. 2015. “Advanced Record Linkage Methods and Privacy Aspects for Population Reconstruction—A Survey and Case Studies.” In Population Reconstruction, edited by Gerrit Bloothooft, Peter Christen, Kees Mandemakers, and Marijn Schraagen, 87–110. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for CoDesign.

Blog post
Luntz, Stephen. 2015. “Oldest Known Message-In-A-Bottle Found.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2016. National Mediation Board: Progress Made on Some GAO Recommendations to Strengthen Operations, but Key Controls Continue to Be Needed. GAO-16-240. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Guzman, Saul. 2015. “Numerical Investigations of a Pipe Jet with Coil Insert Issuing into a Crossflow.” Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Cooper, Michael, and Mary Williams Walsh. 2012. “Distressed Cities Weigh Bold Tactics In a New Fiscal Era.” New York Times, April 1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Abbott 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Abbott 2003; Carrel and Willard 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Carrel and Willard 2005)
  • Three authors: (Efremov, Baradaran, and Sazanov 2010)
  • 4 or more authors: (Mobbs et al. 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleCoDesign
ISSN (print)1571-0882
ISSN (online)1745-3755
ScopeVisual Arts and Performing Arts
Computer Graphics and Computer-Aided Design

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