How to format your references using the CoDesign citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for CoDesign. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
McArdle, J. 2000. “Animal Welfare Act’s Changes Deserve Praise, Not Panic.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 290 (5495): 1299c–1300c.
A journal article with 2 authors
Huard, B., and L. Karlsson. 2000. “KIR Expression on Self-Reactive CD8+ T Cells Is Controlled by T-Cell Receptor Engagement.” Nature 403 (6767): 325–328.
A journal article with 3 authors
Otto, Sonja B., Björn C. Rall, and Ulrich Brose. 2007. “Allometric Degree Distributions Facilitate Food-Web Stability.” Nature 450 (7173): 1226–1229.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Asner, Gregory P., David E. Knapp, Eben N. Broadbent, Paulo J. C. Oliveira, Michael Keller, and Jose N. Silva. 2005. “Selective Logging in the Brazilian Amazon.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 310 (5747): 480–482.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Evans, Anthony J. 2014. Markets for Managers. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Eiseltová, Martina, ed. 2010. Restoration of Lakes, Streams, Floodplains, and Bogs in Europe: Principles and Case Studies. Vol. 3. Wetlands: Ecology, Conservation and Management. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Pudil, Pavel, and Petr Somol. 2005. “Current Feature Selection Techniques in Statistical Pattern Recognition.” In Computer Recognition Systems: Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Computer Recognition Systems CORES ’05, edited by Marek Kurzyński, Edward Puchała, Michał Woźniak, and Andrzej żołnierek, 53–68. Advances in Soft Computing. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for CoDesign.

Blog post
Taub, Ben. 2016. “Mental Health And Romance Are The Roots Of Happiness, Study Finds.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2009. Information Technology: Federal Agencies Need to Strengthen Investment Board Oversight of Poorly Planned and Performing Projects. GAO-09-566. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Araki, Patricia R. 2017. “Golden Years Home Residential Care Facility for the Elderly.” Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, Christopher. 2013. “Orphans, Drug Wars and Other Mysteries.” New York Times, July 14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (McArdle 2000).
This sentence cites two references (McArdle 2000; Huard and Karlsson 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Huard and Karlsson 2000)
  • Three authors: (Otto, Rall, and Brose 2007)
  • 4 or more authors: (Asner et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleCoDesign
ISSN (print)1571-0882
ISSN (online)1745-3755
ScopeVisual Arts and Performing Arts
Computer Graphics and Computer-Aided Design

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