How to format your references using the CoDesign citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for CoDesign. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Caplan, Arthur. 2011. “Genome-Sequencing Anniversary. What Will Drive Genomics over the next 10 Years?” Science (New York, N.Y.) 331 (6018): 691.
A journal article with 2 authors
Purves, Drew, and Stephen Pacala. 2008. “Predictive Models of Forest Dynamics.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 320 (5882): 1452–1453.
A journal article with 3 authors
Tanaka, Gouhei, Chiyori Urabe, and Kazuyuki Aihara. 2014. “Random and Targeted Interventions for Epidemic Control in Metapopulation Models.” Scientific Reports 4 (July): 5522.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Meech, Karen J., Robert Weryk, Marco Micheli, Jan T. Kleyna, Olivier R. Hainaut, Robert Jedicke, Richard J. Wainscoat, et al. 2017. “A Brief Visit from a Red and Extremely Elongated Interstellar Asteroid.” Nature 552 (7685): 378–381.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Püschl, Wolfgang. 2012. Physik Des Segelns. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Pine, Keith R. 2015. Clinical Ocular Prosthetics. Edited by Brian H. Sloan and Robert J. Jacobs. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Boland, Genevieve M., and Jeffrey E. Gershenwald. 2016. “Principles of Melanoma Staging.” In Melanoma, edited by Howard L. Kaufman and Janice M. Mehnert, 131–148. Cancer Treatment and Research. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for CoDesign.

Blog post
Fang, Janet. 2015. “Marmoset Babies Learn to Wait for Their Turn to Talk.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1983. The President’s Second Special Message for FY 1983. OGC-83-3. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Chatterji, Siddharth. 2016. “A Novel Agent-Based Dynamic Load Balancing Model for Cloud Networks.” Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pastan, Linda. 2015. “The Bridge.” New York Times, October 9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Caplan 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Caplan 2011; Purves and Pacala 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Purves and Pacala 2008)
  • Three authors: (Tanaka, Urabe, and Aihara 2014)
  • 4 or more authors: (Meech et al. 2017)

About the journal

Full journal titleCoDesign
ISSN (print)1571-0882
ISSN (online)1745-3755
ScopeVisual Arts and Performing Arts
Computer Graphics and Computer-Aided Design

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