How to format your references using the Journal of Epidemiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Epidemiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:


PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Tepass U. Developmental biology: Polarize to elongate. Nature. 2014;515(7528):499-501.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Owusu-Ansah E, Banerjee U. Reactive oxygen species prime Drosophila haematopoietic progenitors for differentiation. Nature. 2009;461(7263):537-541.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Losonczy A, Makara JK, Magee JC. Compartmentalized dendritic plasticity and input feature storage in neurons. Nature. 2008;452(7186):436-441.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1.
Ozbudak EM, Thattai M, Lim HN, Shraiman BI, Van Oudenaarden A. Multistability in the lactose utilization network of Escherichia coli. Nature. 2004;427(6976):737-740.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Equipment Testing Procedures Committee of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers. Trayed and Packed Columns. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2014.
An edited book
1.
Amsaleg L, Houle ME, Schubert E, eds. Similarity Search and Applications: 9th International Conference, SISAP 2016, Tokyo, Japan, October 24-26, 2016, Proceedings. Vol 9939. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Capello R, Fratesi U. Space and Empirical Approaches to Regional Growth. In: Camagni R, Chizzolini B, Fratesi U, eds. Modelling Regional Scenarios for the Enlarged Europe: European Competiveness and Global Strategies. Advances in Spatial Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2008:49-67.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Epidemiology.

Blog post
1.
Andrews R. The Paris Climate Change Agreement Won’t Keep Warming Below 2 Degrees. IFLScience. https://www.iflscience.com/environment/paris-climate-change-agreement-keep-warming-below-2-degrees/. Published June 30, 2016. Accessed October 30, 2018.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Need for Additional Internal Audit Coverage in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1977.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Gonzalez AX. Échale Ganas: Engaging, Educating, and Empowering Latino Males at Four-Year Institutions. 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Dash E. Standard & Poor’s Lowers More Ratings. New York Times. August 9, 2011:B9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Epidemiology
AbbreviationJ. Epidemiol.
ISSN (print)0917-5040
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Epidemiology

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