How to format your references using the Journal of Epidemiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Epidemiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Farese P. Technology: How to build a low-energy future. Nature. 2012;488(7411):275-277.
A journal article with 2 authors
Deming D, Seager S. Light and shadow from distant worlds. Nature. 2009;462(7271):301-306.
A journal article with 3 authors
Girvetz EH, Jaeger JAG, Thorne JH. Comment on “Roadless space of the conterminous United States.” Science. 2007;318(5854):1240; author reply 1240.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Peckys DB, Baudoin J-P, Eder M, Werner U, de Jonge N. Epidermal growth factor receptor subunit locations determined in hydrated cells with environmental scanning electron microscopy. Sci Rep. 2013;3:2626.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gordon A, Hernandez S. The Official (ISC) 2® Guide to the SSCP 2® CBK 2®. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2016.
An edited book
Jonas M, Nahorski Z, Nilsson S, Whiter T, eds. Greenhouse Gas Inventories: Dealing With Uncertainty. Springer Netherlands; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
Benferhat S, Dubois D, Prade H. Interventions in Possibilistic Logic. In: Godo L, Pugliese A, eds. Scalable Uncertainty Management: Third International Conference, SUM 2009, Washington, DC, USA, September 28-30, 2009. Proceedings. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer; 2009:40-54.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Epidemiology.

Blog post
Hamilton K. Trees Are Much Better At Creating Clouds And Cooling The Climate Than We Thought. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Space Funding: NASA and DOD Activities for Fiscal Years 1981 Through 1989. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1989.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Koonin LM. Acceptability of pharmacies serving as primary dispensers of antiviral drugs during an influenza pandemic: Perspectives of pharmacy executives. Published online 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Leland J. Twilight of a Difficult Man. New York Times. May 19, 2017:MB1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Epidemiology
AbbreviationJ. Epidemiol.
ISSN (print)0917-5040
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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