How to format your references using the Journal of Epidemiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Epidemiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ball P. Arts: Reinventing Galileo. Nature. 2013;494(7438):428-429.
A journal article with 2 authors
Helffrich G, Kaneshima S. Seismological constraints on core composition from Fe-O-S liquid immiscibility. Science. 2004;306(5705):2239-2242.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wang KH, Penmatsa A, Gouaux E. Neurotransmitter and psychostimulant recognition by the dopamine transporter. Nature. 2015;521(7552):322-327.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Zhang R, Xu Y, Wen B, Sheng N, Fang H. Enhanced permeation of a hydrophobic fluid through particles with hydrophobic and hydrophilic patterned surfaces. Sci Rep. 2014;4:5738.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Marcus Y. Supercritical Water. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2012.
An edited book
Gendler R. Treasures of the Southern Sky. (Christensen LL, Malin D, eds.). Springer; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
Sabe M, Heupler F. Cardiac Output. In: Anwaruddin S, Martin JM, Stephens JC, Askari AT, eds. Cardiovascular Hemodynamics: An Introductory Guide. Humana Press; 2013:65-73.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Epidemiology.

Blog post
Hale T. Dramatic Photographs Of Hawaii’s Rising Lava Lake Levels. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. U.S. Science and Engineering Base: A Synthesis of Concerns About Budget and Policy Development. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1987.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Reynolds PR. Midkine (MK) Regulates Pulmonary Vascular Remodeling During Hypoxia. Published online 2004.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Ortved J. Model Makes A Stand With Feminist Art. New York Times. July 6, 2017:D5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Epidemiology
AbbreviationJ. Epidemiol.
ISSN (print)0917-5040
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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