How to format your references using the Avian Diseases citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Avian Diseases. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
  1. Irion, R. KIP THORNE: The Shaman of Space and Time. Science 290: 1488–1491. 2000.
A journal article with 2 authors
  1. Burton, D. R., and I. A. Wilson. Immunology. Square-dancing antibodies. Science 317: 1507–1508. 2007.
A journal article with 3 authors
  1. Randow, F., J. D. MacMicking, and L. C. James. Cellular self-defense: how cell-autonomous immunity protects against pathogens. Science 340: 701–706. 2013.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
  1. Impellizzeri, C. M. V., J. P. McKean, P. Castangia, A. L. Roy, C. Henkel, A. Brunthaler, and O. Wucknitz. A gravitationally lensed water maser in the early Universe. Nature 456: 927–929. 2008.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
  1. Cheremisinoff, N. P., and A. Davletshin. A Guide to Safe Material and Chemical Handling. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ. 2010.
An edited book
  1. Goralski, G. Foundation Flash Catalyst (L. Leon, ed). Apress, Berkeley, CA. 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
  1. Islam, T., and Y. Yamaguchi. Some Computational Predictions on the Possibilities of Three-Dimensional Properties of Grid Cells in Entorhinal Cortex. In: Neural Information Processing: 16th International Conference, ICONIP 2009, Bangkok, Thailand, December 1-5, 2009, Proceedings, Part I. C. S. Leung, M. Lee, and J. H. Chan, eds. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. pp. 26–33. 2009.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Avian Diseases.

Blog post
  1. Andrew, E. Why Tomatoes are Fruits, and Strawberries Aren’t Berries. IFLScience. 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
  1. Government Accountability Office. Research and Development: Counterdrug Technology Assessment Center’s Process for Funding Projects. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC. 1999.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
  1. Manalo, J. B. Ascend Physical Therapy: A Private Practice Clinic for the Next Level. 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
  1. Vecsey, G. A Bit of Sunshine Returns at Last for Fans in the Twilight of an Era. New York Times: D5. 2013.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (2).
This sentence cites two references (3,4).
This sentence cites four references (3,5,7,8).

About the journal

Full journal titleAvian Diseases
AbbreviationAvian Dis.
ISSN (print)0005-2086
ISSN (online)1938-4351
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology
General Immunology and Microbiology
Food Animals

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