How to format your references using the Avian Diseases citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Avian Diseases. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
  1. Peoples, L. L. Neuroscience. Will, anterior cingulate cortex, and addiction. Science 296: 1623–1624. 2002.
A journal article with 2 authors
  1. Galiana, I., and C. Green. Let the global technology race begin. Nature 462: 570–571. 2009.
A journal article with 3 authors
  1. Chakravarty, S., H.-Y. Kee, and K. Völker. An explanation for a universality of transition temperatures in families of copper oxide superconductors. Nature 428: 53–55. 2004.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
  1. Grigorenko, A. N., A. K. Geim, H. F. Gleeson, Y. Zhang, A. A. Firsov, I. Y. Khrushchev, and J. Petrovic. Nanofabricated media with negative permeability at visible frequencies. Nature 438: 335–338. 2005.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
  1. Morvillo, N. Science and Religion. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK. 2010.
An edited book
  1. Gharibreza, M. Applied Limnology: Comprehensive View from Watershed to Lake (M. A. Ashraf, ed). Springer Japan, Tokyo. 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
  1. Holinstat, M., K. Niisuke, and B. E. Tourdot. Platelets and Lipoxygenases. In: Lipoxygenases in Inflammation. D. Steinhilber, ed. Springer International Publishing, Cham. pp. 83–99. 2016.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Avian Diseases.

Blog post
  1. Luntz, S. The Invisible Beauty of Wireless Networks. IFLScience. 2014.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
  1. Government Accountability Office. Aerospace Plane Technology: Research and Development Efforts in Japan and Australia. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC. 1991.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
  1. Curtis, K. J. Mozambican national anthems: Memory, performance, and nation-building. 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
  1. Hodara, S. A Hilltop Museum, Legacy of a Trailblazing Architect. New York Times: CT10. 2015.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (2).
This sentence cites two references (3,4).
This sentence cites four references (4,5,7,8).

About the journal

Full journal titleAvian Diseases
AbbreviationAvian Dis.
ISSN (print)0005-2086
ISSN (online)1938-4351
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology
General Immunology and Microbiology
Food Animals

Other styles