How to format your references using the Avian Diseases citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Avian Diseases. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
  1. Birney, E. The making of ENCODE: Lessons for big-data projects. Nature 489: 49–51. 2012.
A journal article with 2 authors
  1. Thoennessen, M., and B. Sherrill. From isotopes to the stars. Nature 473: 25–26. 2011.
A journal article with 3 authors
  1. Cusick, R. D., Y. Kim, and B. E. Logan. Energy capture from thermolytic solutions in microbial reverse-electrodialysis cells. Science 335: 1474–1477. 2012.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
  1. Kim, Y., H. Shim, K. Kim, H. Park, S. Jang, and Y. Park. Profiling individual human red blood cells using common-path diffraction optical tomography. Sci. Rep. 4: 6659. 2014.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
  1. Kolb, R. W. Sovereign Debt. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ. 2011.
An edited book
  1. Research and Advanced Technology for Digital Libraries: International Conference on Theory and Practice of Digital Libraries, TPDL 2013, Valletta, Malta, September 22-26, 2013. Proceedings (T. Aalberg, C. Papatheodorou, M. Dobreva, G. Tsakonas, and C. J. Farrugia, eds). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
  1. Wieland, T., M. Fenne, and B. Stöcker. Background Data Acquisition and Carrying: The BlueDACS Project. In: Architecture of Computing Systems - ARCS 2006: 19th International Conference, Frankfurt/Main, Germany, March 13-16, 2006. Proceedings. W. Grass, B. Sick, and K. Waldschmidt, eds. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. pp. 56–68. 2006.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Avian Diseases.

Blog post
  1. Luntz, S. Spitfire Insects Need Leaders and Followers. IFLScience. 2014.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
  1. Government Accountability Office. Aviation Safety: FAA’s Use of Emergency Orders to Revoke or Suspend Operating Certificates. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC. 1998.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
  1. Naro, A. The effects of the structural components of 4-H residential summer programs on the achievement of the essential elements of positive youth development and the acquisition of targeted life skills. 2016.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
  1. Vecsey, G. In Assessing Agassi, The Title Tells It All. New York Times: SP8. 2009.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (2).
This sentence cites two references (2,4).
This sentence cites four references (2,6–8).

About the journal

Full journal titleAvian Diseases
AbbreviationAvian Dis.
ISSN (print)0005-2086
ISSN (online)1938-4351
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology
General Immunology and Microbiology
Food Animals

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