How to format your references using the Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1
Magurran AE. Ecology. Threats to freshwater fish. Science 2009;325:1215–6.
A journal article with 2 authors
1
Keinan A, Clark AG. Recent explosive human population growth has resulted in an excess of rare genetic variants. Science 2012;336:740–3.
A journal article with 3 authors
1
Shema R, Sacktor TC, Dudai Y. Rapid erasure of long-term memory associations in the cortex by an inhibitor of PKM zeta. Science 2007;317:951–3.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
1
Žitnik M, Janjić V, Larminie C, et al. Discovering disease-disease associations by fusing systems-level molecular data. Sci Rep 2013;3:3202.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1
Rigby KA. Aircraft Systems Integration of Air-Launched Weapons. Chichester, UK: : John Wiley & Sons, Ltd 2013.
An edited book
1
Conti M, Schunter M, Askoxylakis I, editors. Trust and Trustworthy Computing: 8th International Conference, TRUST 2015, Heraklion, Greece, August 24-26, 2015, Proceedings. 1st ed. 2015. Cham: : Springer International Publishing 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
1
Moffitt MA, Lee DC, Bradley K. Spinal Cord Stimulation: Engineering Approaches to Clinical and Physiological Challenges. In: Greenbaum E, Zhou D, eds. Implantable Neural Prostheses 1: Devices and Applications. New York, NY: : Springer US 2009. 155–94.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health.

Blog post
1
Hamilton K. First Known Plant To Sync Pollen Release To The Light Of The Full Moon. IFLScience. 2015.https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/first-known-plant-sync-pollen-release-light-full-moon/ (accessed 30 Oct 2018).

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1
Government Accountability Office. Federal Research: System for Reimbursing Universities’ Indirect Costs Should Be Reevaluated. Washington, DC: : U.S. Government Printing Office 1992.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1
Arendt KR. Symbiosis establishment and ecological effects of endohyphal bacteria on foliar fungi. 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1
Billard M. Silent Partners No Longer. New York Times. 2012;:E1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Epidemiology and Community Health
AbbreviationJ. Epidemiol. Community Health
ISSN (print)0143-005X
ISSN (online)1470-2738
ScopeEpidemiology
Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

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